Cold tolerance of microarthropods

first_img1. Microarthropods (Acari and Collembola) are dominant components of the terrestrial fauna in the Antarctic. Their cold tolerance, which forms the mainspring of their adaptational strategy, is reviewed against a background of their structure and function, and by comparison with other arthropods. 2. Two species, the isotomid collembolan Cryptopygus antarcticus Willem and the oribatid mite Alaskozetes antarcticus (Michael), are examined in detail, and afford a comparative approach to the mechanisms underlying cold tolerance in insect and arachnid types. 3. All microarthropods appear to be freezing‐susceptible (unable to tolerate tissue ice), and they utilize varying levels of supercooling to avoid freezing. Gut contents are considered to be the prime nucleation site in most arthropods when supercooled, particularly for Antarctic species. Moulting also increases individual supercooling ability especially in Collembola, and the activity of ice‐nucleating bacteria in cold‐hardy arthropods may be important. 4. Sources of ice nucleators are many and varied, originating externally (motes) or internally (ice‐nucleating agents). They act either extracellularly (mainly in the haemolymph) to promote freezing in ice‐tolerant life stages, or intracellularly in freezing‐susceptible forms. Thermal hysteresis proteins, acting colligatively, occur in many arthropods including Collembola; they depress both the freezing point of body fluids and the whole‐body supercooling point of freezing‐ susceptible and freezing‐tolerant species. 5. Bimodal supercooling point distributions are a feature of microarthropods and water droplets. Samples of field populations of Antarctic mites and springtails show significant seasonal changes in these distributions, which in some respects are analogous to purely physical systems of water droplets. Supercooling points are confirmed as accurate measures of cold‐hardiness and survival for Antarctic species, but not necessarily for other arthropods. The effects of constant sub‐zero temperatures approaching the limit of the supercooling ability of arthropods require study. 6. Desiccation and dehydration influence microarthropod physiology in several ways; in Alaskozetes it triggers glycerol synthesis. Glycerol may aid binding of water in severely dehydrated insects, but the relationship of such ‘bound’ water to cold‐hardiness is unclear. 7. Sugar alcohols (polyols) and sugars are accumulated as potential cryoprotectants in many arthropods at low temperatures, and antifreeze systems may be single or multi‐component in structure. Cryoprotectant synthesis and regulation have been studied principally in insects, and fresh weight concentrations of 0–3‐5 M of polyols have been found. Trehalose accumulation may also influence cold‐hardiness. 8. Microarthropods fall within the spectrum of cold tolerance observed for arthropods and other invertebrates. No special adaptations are found in Antarctic species, and similar strategies and mechanisms are present in both insects and arachnids. The colonization and maintenance of microarthropod populations of polar land habitats seem not to have required the evolution of any novel features with respect to cold tolerance.last_img read more

Phytoplankton community composition around the Crozet Plateau, with emphasis on diatoms and Phaeocystis

first_imgPhytoplankton community composition has important implications for upper-ocean biogeochemistry and export production. The species composition of the phytoplankton community (diatoms, Phaeocystis antarctica) was examined around the Crozet Plateau (Southern Ocean) during the CROZEX project in order to address spatial changes in species composition. Phytoplankton biomass was dominated by P. antarctica to the north of the Crozet Plateau, while south of the plateau a diverse community including several large diatom species (e.g., Corethron pennatum) occurred. The phytoplankton community in the vicinity of the Crozet Plateau and Crozet islands included a mixture of P. antarctica and Thalassionema nitzschioides. High numbers of empty diatom frustules characterised many of the sampling sites, with similar species present in the water column as both full and empty cells. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse both the level of similarity between the different sampling sites and the co-occurrence of species. Cluster analysis of the sampling sites showed distinct clusters that differed in terms of species composition and environmental parameters. Recurrent species analysis showed groupings which relate to phytoplankton cell size; groupings separated (i) small (similar to 15 mu m) diatom species, (ii) medium (similar to 35 mu m) and large (similar to 90 mu m) diatom species as well as P. antarctica colonies, and (iii) giant (similar to 300 mu m) diatoms. The abundance and distribution of the different floral groups identified by multivariate analysis are linked to the different environmental regimes, although the relationships are different for small and large species due to the interaction between factors important for phytoplankton growth (e.g., light, nutrients, iron) and mortality (e.g., grazing).last_img read more

Keel Laid for Fourth Indian Coast Guard OPV

first_img Share this article View post tag: Indian KEEL LAYING CEREMONY FOR THE FOURTH INDIAN COAST GUARD OPVGoa Shipyard Ltd held a keel laying ceremony for the fourth of six new Indian Coast Guard’s Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPV) on January 9th 2014.The class is specifically designed and built by Goa Shipyard for the Coast Guard.The contract for building the six vessels was signed on May 9, 2012, and the first keel laying ceremony took place at Goa Shipyard on September 28th 2012.These vessels will be the most advanced OPVs in service of the Indian Coast Guard.[mappress]Naval Today Staff, January 10, 2014; Image: Goa Shipyard January 10, 2014 View post tag: Defense Back to overview,Home naval-today Keel Laid for Fourth Indian Coast Guard OPV View post tag: Naval View post tag: Guard Keel Laid for Fourth Indian Coast Guard OPV View post tag: Laidcenter_img View post tag: coast View post tag: KEEL View post tag: Navy View post tag: Fourth View post tag: Defence View post tag: News by topic View post tag: OPV Industry newslast_img read more

Observations Of Tonights City Council Meeting

first_imgMayor Asking People To Push Council To Vote On Funding Of “PENGUIN” Exhibit At The Zoo?For several years the City County Observer and past Council Finance Chairman John Friend CPA have been saying that the City of Evansville is facing major financial challenges because of deficit spending practices and un-necessary political pork barrel projects.Every time we reported that City Council has a major deficit shortfall concerning the 2016 City Employees Health care budget City Controller Russ Lloyd Jr stated that the city is in sound financial shape. When we question un-necessary spending practices of the City, Finance Chairman Dan McGinn, President Missy Mosby and Jonathan Weaver also declares that the city is in great financial shape.September 23, 2016 Amended Employee Insurance Health Plan Offer By Mayor WinneckeOn September 23, 2016 Mayor Winnecke gave members of Police and Fire an amended Employee Insurance Health plan offer.  In his new offer he lowered the premiums costs of this plan very little.The Mayor is now putting a political spin that he has reduced his newly amended City Employee Heath care premium by 35%.  However, is he is failing to mention that his newly admended 2017 Employee Health care package is still about a 300% increase over this years plan.We predict that Evansville Police and Fire rank and file will be out in force at tonights City Council meeting to publicly object to the Mayor newly amended 2017 Employee Health care plan.Attached below Is the link to the amended Employee Health care package offer presented to our Fire and Police Department employees by Mayor Winnecke.20160924044834728Other Observations Of Tonights City Council MeetingsIt look like the Evansville City Council attempt to pass the 2017 budget at tonight meeting will be met with major opposition from taxpayers, not-for profits organizations, rank and file members of the Evansville Fire and Police Departments, Friends of the Zoo who want the plans for $11 million dollar “PENGUIN” exhibit to go forward and members of city appointed boards.We have been informed by reliable sources that city budgeted $24 million dollars to pay for Employee Health care costs for 2016.  We hear that the city may have a financial shortfall of around $6 million dollars for this year.  It looks like past City Council Finance Chairman John Friend CPA predictions about the 2016 budget shortfall were track on!The city is now projecting that the Health Care costs in 2017 will be well over $30 million dollars.  According to media reports that Council Vice President Jonathan Weaver, D-At-Large, said the city money situation is in “dire straits.” Finance Chairman Dan McGinn, R-1st Ward, now declares, that the City “can’t afford to pay their medical bills.” It looks like Council President Missy Mosby is in political hiding. We wonder why they didn’t realize this problem last budget year.We are hearing that Council leadership (McGinn, Mosby and Weaver) and Mayor Winnecke are now talking about moving city funds around so they can pay current and future bills.   Council leadership (McGinn, Mosby and Weaver) and Mayor Winnecke are now planning to raid millions of dollars from the Riverboat Fund, reduce the 2017 Homestead Tax Credit  by 2% and increase the Local Income Tax.Oh, just in case the Mayor and his City Council leadership team  (McGinn, Mosby and Weaver) would like to know that Mr. Friend is also  predicting that the 2017 budget challenges shall be even greater!FOOTNOTES:We find it interesting that Councilman Jonathan Weaver is telling the main stream media the reason why the City of Evansville Health Care fund are experiencing major deficits are because of “OBAMA CARE.”   Isn’t parts of the City of Evansville Health Care fund self funding?Mayor Winnecke is facing the biggest political challenge of his career.We predict that Council members Elpers and Hargis will rule the day when they garner the needed votes to reject the funding of the “PENGUIN” exhibit.We have just heard that the Mayor is on his Facebook page asking people to show up and push Council to vote on funding his proposed “PENGUIN” exhibit at the Zoo?  What this tells us is he is putting “PENGUIN” over the funding of Employee Health Care program for city employees.  All we can say about this is “WOW”!City Controller Russ Lloyd Jr. budgetary wisdom will be question and challenged after tonights meeting.  Our elected officials will be questioning why Controller Lloyd Jr didn’t warn them earlier about major budget problems.To approve the proposed 2017 City budget it would require the majority of council members to vote on it.  We are hearing that Council leadership (McGinn, Mosby and Weaver)  and Mayor Winnecke have painted themselves in a political corner concerning the poorly crafting of the proposed 2017 City budget.  It looks like members of City Council are in for a long and stressful evening defending the Council leadership and Mayor Winnecke’s 2017 budget cuts.Finally, if our elected City Council members would had listened to former City Council Finance Chairman John Friend CPA they wouldn’t be in the financial mess they are in now!FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more

Weekly Activity Report February 19-25

first_imgCity Ordinance 87-17sec.4-32 prohibits any Boat/Trailer over 22 feet in overall length from being parked on a city street.       Any boat/trailer less than 22 feet in overall length can only remain on a city street for three consecutive days. Officers will be issuing summons and towing boats/trailers for any observed violations. Bicycle riders must obey all vehicle laws similar to that of a vehicle.       They must stop at stop signs, traffic lights and ride with the flow of traffic. Bicycle riders are not pedestrians and do not have the same right of way as a pedestrian when crossing the street at an intersection. Calls for Service: 652          Daily Average: 93 February 19, 2017: Sunday Calls for service: 107 Vehicle Stops: 34 Vehicle Accidents: 1 Property Checks: 45 Alarms: 1The Police Department assisted with 5 Fire and 12 EMS callsVehicle accident, 800 block 9th St., at 12:08pmDomestic violence, 600 block 2nd St., at 9:53pmCDS, Inlet Rd., two in custody, at 10:57pm February 20, 2017: Monday Calls for service: 80 Vehicle Stops: 12 Vehicle Accidents: 0 Property Checks: 42 Alarms: 1The Police Department assisted with 6 Fire and 4 EMS callsTrespassing, 700 block Moorlyn Terr., at 2:44am February 21, 2017: TuesdayCalls for service: 89 Vehicle Stops: 28 Vehicle Accidents: 0 Property Checks: 31 Alarms: 5The Police Department assisted with 11 fire and 10 EMS callsTheft, W. 52nd St., at 3:59pm February 22, 2017: WednesdayCalls for service: 110 Vehicle Stops: 48 Vehicle Accidents: 1 Property Checks: 34 Alarms: 2The Police Department assisted with 3 fire and 4 EMS callsWarrant, Route 52, one in custody, at 8:10amWarrant, 900 block West Ave., one in custody, at 4:25pmVehicle accident, 8th St. & Ocean Ave., at 5:04pm February 23, 2017: ThursdayCalls for service: 86 Vehicle Stops: 30 Vehicle Accidents: 0 Property Checks: 34 Alarms: 5The Police Department assisted with 2 fire and 8 EMS callsTheft, 600 block Ocean Ave., at 2:09pmBurglary, 600 block 2nd St., at 6:15pm February 24, 2017: FridayCalls for service: 79 Vehicle Stops: 27   Vehicle Accidents: 0    Property Checks: 26   Alarms: 3The Police Department assisted with 7 fire and 8 EMS callsTheft, 1200 block Asbury Ave., at 9:25amWarrant,, Route 52, one in custody, at 3:32pmBurglary, 600 block Wesley Ave., at 10:44pmFebruary 25, 2017: SaturdayCalls for service: 101 Vehicle Stops: 28   Vehicle Accidents: 1  Property Checks: 37    Alarms: 3The Police Department assisted with 4 fire and 4 EMS callsVehicle accident, 800 block West Ave., at 7:10pmPUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS:Just a reminder that it is a violation of a City Ordinance to have dogs on the boardwalk anytime during the year.last_img read more

Woodhead Bakery in double acquisition deal

first_imgWoodhead Bakery workers were celebrating after nearly all the troubled business’ shops and factory were saved by two separate deals.Coopland & Sons (Scarborough) bought 18 of the shops, while Bakery Products Ltd, part of supermarket business Haldane Retail Group, snapped up the Scarborough bakery and 11 shops. Woodhead went into administration at the end of March, after being hit by inflation and rising wheat prices; only the Redcar store was closed, with the loss of 30 jobs.Midlands-based Bakery Products was set up specifically to manage the new business, appointing Woodhead’s long-standing MD Phil Davis as managing director of the new company. He will take full responsibility for management of the bakery, while Colin Woodhead, although now retired, will work as a consultant.Haldane Retail Group owns supermarkets trading under three fascias – Haldanes Stores, Haldanes Express and UGO. The bakery will supply all 20 of the new UGO stores, which are scheduled to open over the next six weeks, and will eventually supply all 44 stores in the portfolio.For the full story see the next issue of British Baker, out 22 April.>>Woodhead Bakery hit by rising wheat priceslast_img read more

Hovis to air new British TV ad

first_imgPremier Foods will air a new British-themed TV advert for its Hovis bread brand next month.The £1m ad campaign, which will run from 10 February until the end of March, will focus on its existing ‘Go on Lad’ concept, featuring a young boy’s journey through recent history and focusing on British life and iconic events, such as the Queen’s Silver Jubilee. It forms part of a wider £10m investment to promote Hovis as a British brand among its major national competitors.Michael Clarke, chief executive officer at Premier Foods, said: “The awareness and popularity of our Power Brands remain strong, but it’s clear that we haven’t invested enough in marketing compared with our competitors. I’m committed to changing that. The new TV ads are just the start of things to come.” Premier Foods recently updated Hovis’ bread packaging to feature the Union Jack flag and an eye-catching blue band, highlighting it as the only major national bread brand that uses 100% British wheat and no artificial preservatives.The company has extended its marketing spend to more than £50m this year to help restore growth, focusing on its eight Power Brands and running TV campaigns for six of them, including Hovis and Mr Kipling. Each advert will carry a Premier Foods signature to illustrate the company’s commitment to invest in its brand portfolio.Premier Foods will also be running TV ad campaigns for its Sharwood’s and Loyd Grossman brands in the next two weeks.last_img read more

Killings in Nairobi hit home

first_imgA recent Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) graduate visiting Kenya to deliver her first child was among more than 60 people killed by Somali militants in the weekend attack on a shopping mall in Nairobi.Elif Yavuz, 33, a Dutch national described as “unique” and “hilariously funny” by an HSPH faculty member who worked closely with her, received a doctoral degree last spring. She was killed along with her partner, Australian architect Ross Langdon.“She was warm. She was very intelligent, hilariously funny, unique, a really unique person,” said Jessica Cohen, assistant professor of global health, who was Yavuz’s thesis adviser and collaborated with Yavuz on projects. “We all feel the loss very strongly because she was so special.”Cohen learned of Yavuz’s death early Sunday from friends involved with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, where Yavuz worked. Yavuz and Cohen had conducted research with group in the past.HSPH Dean Julio Frenk issued a statement to the community on the tragedy, saying “Elif committed her life and her career to helping those in need. Her compassion was an inspiration to everyone she touched at HSPH and the broader global community in which she lived and worked. She will be deeply missed by all who knew her.”Yavuz conducted research on malaria in Uganda, spending much of her third year there. The work, Cohen said, involved supplying bed nets and medication and was aimed at improving malaria-related public policy.After graduating, Yavuz took a job with the Clinton Health Access Initiative’s applied analytics team in Tanzania’s largest city, Dar es Salaam. She was in Nairobi to deliver her baby, expected in early October, Cohen said.Former President Bill Clinton, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and Chelsea Clinton also expressed regret at the tragedy.“We were shocked and terribly saddened to learn of the death of Elif Yavuz in the senseless attacks in Nairobi,” they said in a statement posted on the Clinton Foundation website. “Elif devoted her life to helping others, particularly people in developing countries suffering from malaria and HIV/AIDS. She had originally worked with our Health Access Initiative during her doctoral studies, and we were so pleased that she had recently rejoined us as a senior vaccines researcher based in Tanzania. Elif was brilliant, dedicated, and deeply admired by her colleagues, who will miss her terribly.  On behalf of the entire Clinton Foundation, we send our heartfelt condolences and prayers to Elif’s family and her many friends throughout the world.”A group of HSPH students and alumni who knew Yavuz issued a separate statement Monday afternoon, saying they were “shocked and devastated” by the loss.“Elif made life richer for us all,” said the statement by Shahira Ahmed, Emily Harrison, Heather Lanthorn, Corrina Moucheraud, and Pamela Scorza. “Her intelligence, spark, and wit, coupled with her unending hopefulness and enthusiasm, brightened our lives.  She was a friend, laughter therapist, vegetarian cook, yogi, novel reader, wine- and tea-drinking companion, scientist, public health malaria specialist, adventurer, mother-to-be. She remains in our hearts and memories, and we will deeply miss her.”The Nairobi attack by militants with the Somalia-based Shabab group began Saturday in the upscale Westgate shopping mall in Kenya’s capital. The militants killed civilians and took others hostage before beginning a drawn-out faceoff with Kenyan security forces.Harvard history professor Caroline Elkins, who has worked extensively in Kenya and who chairs the Harvard Committee on African Studies, spoke of the “senseless” loss to the Harvard community, to families in Kenya, and to families of victims from other nations.“Al-Shabaab’s cowardly attack at the Westgate Mall in Nairobi has brought tragedy to countless communities in Kenya and indeed across the globe. Here at Harvard, we have lost a member of our own community, and mourn for the senseless loss of so many lives,” Elkins said. “This is a time to remind ourselves not only of Kenya’s resiliency in the face of such terror, but also our own capacity to reach out to those who will need our support and strength in the days and months and indeed years ahead.”last_img read more

Forage-Finished Beef

first_imgOver the past decade the demand for grassfed beef has increased dramatically, and that is great news for Georgia’s cattle farmers.Because of the state’s long growing season, Georgia farmers are uniquely positioned to allow their cattle to graze all year round. University of Georgia forage and cattle experts are now looking for forages that will produce the best quality beef in Georgia’s climate, so that Georgia’s grassfed beef will be as tasty as possible. “Forage-fed or grass-fed beef is growing in popularity among consumers, and several producers in the state are trying to adjust their production systems to meet the is niche market,” said Lawton Stewart, an Extension Beef Specialist in the University of Georgia Collage of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “Many consumers are willing to pay a premium for this product, so there is an incentive to produce beef in this way. But that isn’t a simple task.”Stewart, is working with UGA meat quality researcher Alex Stelzleni and UGA Extension Forage Specialist Dennis Hancock to conduct a four year study to determine which summer forages produce the best meat quality in grassfed beef. One of the issues with grassfed beef in the South is that it is hard to finish beef on pasture during the summer. During the hot summer months, Georgia’s go-to perennial forage — bermudagrass — isn’t quite digestible or nutritious enough to finish beef cattle. Cattle finished on summer bermudagrass will be leaner, taste slightly lamby and have a yellow tinge to their fat from accumulated beta carotene. “Bermudagrass can be a very good quality, but it’s not good enough during the summer to really put the weight on fast enough for the animal to develop the intramuscular fat that you want when your looking for a steak,” said Hancock. Leaner, less-marbled beef isn’t a bad thing in itself but it does limit the market for the farmers’ beef. “So what happens is that the farmer has to make a decision about whether to sell a lighter-weight animal that could have some taste differences,” Stelzleni said. “Or they have to hold on to that animal for another four to six months until they can get back on to the cool season grasses to get those gains back up. That can become expensive and even cost prohibitive for both the producer and the consumer.”Not being able to finish cattle to the same quality during summer means the farmer has to interrupt the supply of beef to steady customers who depend on a consistent supply, like restaurants and small markets. When this grassfed beef study is complete in 2016, Stelzleni, Hancock and Stewart will have research-based information to help farmers who want to break in to the potentially lucrative grassfed beef market and produce beef throughout the year. Their study involves 32 Angus and Hereford mix steers housed on pasture at the UGA Eatonton Beef Research Unit. Four summer annual forage systems were tested. Each planting has higher nutritional content and is more easily digestible than the standard pasture grass that would typically be available in Georgia pastures. Sets of up to eight steers were rotated around pastures that contained sorghum and sudangrass hybrid, brown midrib sorghum and sudangrass hybrid, pearl millet or a mix of pearl millet and crabgrass. These forages have to be planted every year, but they allow for greater animal gains than the pastures that Georgia farmers usually depend upon to feed their cattle during the dry summer, Hancock said. “We’ve selected (these forages) for their ability to thrive in our climate and especially in the summers we get,” Stelzleni said. “Several of the forages, actually have a good bit of drought tolerance to the them and have been bred and selected for use in Africa. The team harvested the cattle in September, and Stelzleni is now pulling samples from the 32 carcasses so that he can test composition and meat quality. The team found very little difference in the health and weight gain of the herds eating each forage while they were alive, but are finding that the brown midrib sorghum and sudangrass hybrid seems to produce slightly better meat quality. The mix of pearl millet and crabgrass seemed to endure grazing somewhat better that the other forages. “(All of the steers) did a little better than we thought they were going to do from a quality and marbling standpoint,” Stelzleni said.The team’s data won’t be conclusive until they finish all four years of testing, but what has been conclusive is the public’s response to the beef. All the beef that wasn’t taken for meat quality samples is available for sale at the UGA Meat Science Technology Store in Athens. Thirty-two whole sides of beef have sold through bulk pre-orders and individual cuts of beef are flying off of the shelves as soon as they can be stocked, Stelzleni said. The team plans to use the proceeds from the beef sale to fund the last two years of the study. For more information about the UGA Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences visit, and for more information about the UGA Forages program visit For more information on beef forage production please contact your local Extension office by calling 1-800-ASK–UGA1.last_img read more

Exterus Welcomes Don MacLellan

first_imgExterus Technology for Business of Shelburne announced that Don MacLellan was hired as a Systems Engineer. Mr. MacLellan has been in the IT industry for over seven years and holds a Computer Information Systems, Networking (CISN) degree from the Nova Scotia Community College.last_img