At the elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 anticipated by around 2050, crops that provide a large share of the global population with most of their dietary zinc and iron will have significantly reduced concentrations of those nutrients, according to a new study led by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH). Given that an estimated 2 billion people suffer from zinc and iron deficiencies, resulting in a loss of 63 million life years annually from malnutrition, the reduction in these nutrients represents the most significant health threat ever shown to be associated with climate change.“This study is the first to resolve the question of whether rising CO2 concentrations — which have been increasing steadily since the Industrial Revolution — threaten human nutrition,” said Samuel Myers, research scientist in the Department of Environmental Health at HSPH and the study’s lead author.The study appears online May 7 in Nature.Some previous studies of crops grown in greenhouses and chambers at elevated CO2 had found nutrient reductions, but those studies were criticized for using artificial growing conditions. Experiments using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technology became the gold standard as FACE allowed plants to be grown in open fields at elevated levels of CO2, but those prior studies had small sample sizes and have been inconclusive.The researchers analyzed data involving 41 cultivars (genotypes) of grains and legumes from the C3 and C4 functional groups (plants that use C3 and C4 carbon fixation) from seven different FACE locations in Japan, Australia, and the United States. The level of CO2 across all seven sites was in the range of 546 to 586 parts per million (ppm). The researchers tested the nutrient concentrations of the edible portions of wheat and rice (C3 grains), maize and sorghum (C4 grains), and soybeans and field peas (C3 legumes).The results showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of zinc, iron, and protein in C3 grains. For example, zinc, iron, and protein concentrations in wheat grains grown at the FACE sites were reduced by 9.3 percent, 5.1 percent, and 6.3 percent, respectively, compared with wheat grown at ambient CO2. Zinc and iron were also significantly reduced in legumes; protein was not.The finding that C3 grains and legumes lost iron and zinc at elevated CO2 is significant. Myers and his colleagues estimate that 2 billion–3 billion people around the world receive 70 percent or more of their dietary zinc and/or iron from C3 crops, particularly in the developing world, where deficiency of zinc and iron is already a major health concern.C4 crops appeared to be less affected by higher CO2, which is consistent with underlying plant physiology, as C4 plants concentrate CO2 inside the cell for photosynthesis, and thus they might be expected to be less sensitive to extracellular changes in CO2 concentration.The researchers were surprised to find that zinc and iron varied substantially across cultivars of rice. That finding suggests that there could be an opportunity to breed reduced sensitivity to the effect of elevated CO2 into crop cultivars in the future.In addition to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions, breeding cultivars with reduced sensitivity to CO2, biofortification of crops with iron and zinc, and nutritional supplementation for populations most affected could all play a role in reducing the human health impacts of these changes, said Myers. “Humanity is conducting a global experiment by rapidly altering the environmental conditions on the only habitable planet we know. As this experiment unfolds, there will undoubtedly be many surprises. Finding out that rising CO2 threatens human nutrition is one such surprise,” he said.Other HSPH authors include Antonella Zanobetti, Itai Kloog, and Joel Schwartz.
Categories: Editorial, OpinionWhen the president suggested that he could envision a limited nuclear war with our communist adversary, critics were “horrified” and “appalled” while the regime called his remarks “dangerous madness.” This does not mean nuclear war.If North Korea persists in testing, it could involve a targeted military strike taking out Pyongyang’s ballistic missile and nuclear facilities. To the contrary, it was part of an intentional campaign designed to get North Korea to understand that Trump, unlike his predecessors, is willing to use force to stop Pyongyang from threatening American cities. For decades, the North Koreans have believed that they are untouchable because they can incinerate Seoul with conventional weapons.Now, they are on a crash course to develop and deploy the capability to incinerate U.S. cities with nuclear weapons.They think the pursuit of these weapons is making them even safer.Trump is trying to convince them that the opposite is true.The best chance to prevent such a use of force is if North Korea receives and believes this message.So we’d all better hope that Trump succeeds. Furthermore, as my American Enterprise Institute colleague Oriana Skylar Mastro recently pointed out, “Kim understands that a second Korean War would end with his demise, and therefore he has incentives to avoid such escalation.“Assuming Kim is rational then, it is possible that the United States could conduct a limited surgical strike and North Korea’s response would be minimal.”Trump’s tweets are intended to prevent us from getting to that point.They are not only entirely rational but also strategically smart.Let’s hope his critics keep questioning his sanity, because it can only help convince Kim that Trump is serious.Marc A. Thiessen is a columnist with The Washington Post who writes from a conservative perspective. He is the former chief speechwriter for President George W. Bush.More from The Daily Gazette:EDITORIAL: Find a way to get family members into nursing homesFoss: Should main downtown branch of the Schenectady County Public Library reopen?EDITORIAL: Beware of voter intimidationEDITORIAL: Thruway tax unfair to working motoristsEDITORIAL: Urgent: Today is the last day to complete the census On “Fox News Sunday,” CIA Director Mike Pompeo underscored Trump’s message, declaring that “We want the regime to understand that, unlike before, we are intent on resolving this and it is our firm conviction that resolving this diplomatically is the correct answer but that this administration is prepared to do what it takes to assure that people in Los Angeles, in Denver, in New York are not held at risk from Kim Jong Un having a nuclear weapon.”All those in the perpetual outrage machine who are calling Trump a “madman” for his tweet are also inadvertently helping him send that message to Pyongyang — just as Reagan’s critics helped convince Moscow that he was a madman.Are Trump’s threats of military action a bluff? No.As national security adviser H.R. McMaster recently explained, Trump is “not going to allow this murderous, rogue regime to threaten the United States with the most destructive weapons on the planet.”Trump tweeted in August: Two years later, Margaret Thatcher shared intelligence from KGB Colonel Oleg Gordievsky (who was working for the British) that Russian officials were increasingly convinced Reagan was getting ready for a nuclear first strike and was running drills to prepare for it.Indeed, NATO did carry out an exercise for a nuclear exchange — “Able Archer 83” — which included planes taxiing onto runways with realistic dummy nuclear warheads.Again, Reagan did not disabuse the Soviets of the notion.Quite the opposite: The next year he joked when testing his microphone before his weekly radio address “We begin bombing in five minutes.”The belief of Soviet leaders that Reagan might just be crazy enough to push the nuclear button constrained Soviet behavior and helped make possible a peaceful end to the Cold War.Now Trump is trying to send a similar message to the North Korean regime.His recent tweet telling Pyongyang that his nuclear button is “much bigger & more powerful” than Kim Jong Un’s was neither unstable nor stupid. The president in question was not Donald Trump.It was Ronald Reagan, who in his first year in office raised the possibility that the United States and the Soviet Union could survive an exchange of tactical nuclear weapons.That same year Richard Pipes, Reagan’s director of East European and Soviet affairs on the National Security Council, told The Post he thought the probability of nuclear war was about 40 percent.These remarks sent a signal to Moscow that Reagan was not like those who came before him.He did not want war, but he would not shy from one if provoked. That message was received.In 1981, then-KGB chief and future Soviet leader Yuri Andropov declared at a major KGB conference that Reagan “was actively preparing for war and that a nuclear first strike was possible.”
On Tuesday, the National Science Foundation announced a three-year, $3.5 million grant to USC, California Institute of Technology and UCLA in order to foster collaboration between public and private institutions and promote technology innovation in the Southern California region.The NSF, an independent agency created by the federal government, has designated Southern California as its next “node” as part of its Innovation Corps (I-Corps) initiative. The Los Angeles area joins the five other I-Corps nodes in the San Francisco Bay, New York City, Washington, D.C., Georgia and Michigan, as well as a forthcoming node at the University of Texas in Austin.Andrea Belz, academic director of the Master of Science in Entrepreneurship and Innovation program at the Marshall School of Business and a Caltech alumna, will serve as director of the Southern California node.“We are thrilled to be part of NSF’s visionary I-Corps program. This award will strongly accelerate the growth of the study and practice of entrepreneurship and innovation management throughout our region,” she said in a statement to USC News.The goal of the I-Corps program is to encourage scientists and engineers to connect with business leaders on- and off-campus to bring their ideas to fruition. At USC, the I-Corps node will bring together Belz and Yannis C. Yortsos, who helped secure the grant and is dean of the Viterbi School of Engineering. They will work to educate entrepreneurs about potential business opportunities based on research done within universities and the I-Corps program.Working with leaders at Caltech and UCLA, USC hopes to strengthen Los Angeles’s position as a technological center for the country.“With the largest number of talented engineers graduating from Southern California institutions than from any other geographic region in the nation, the conditions are just ripe for this creative transformation for the benefit of the region and the nation overall,” Yortsos said in a statement to USC News.
One of the best junior lightweights returns to the ring for his 2019 debut, as Tevin Farmer puts his IBF junior lightweight title on the line, when he faces Jono Carroll on Friday at the Liacouras Center in Farmer’s hometown of Philadelphia, live and exclusively on DAZN. In the co-main event, WBA/IBF women’s lightweight champion Katie Taylor will face WBO champion Rose Volante in a title unification bout.This will mark the fourth time Farmer (28-4-1 no contest, 6 KOs) competes since his championship win over Billy Dib last August. If the 28-year-old can get by Carroll, it would mark his third straight title defense and continue the chatter for a title unification with either WBA champion Gervonta Davis or WBO titleholder Andrew Cancio. Carroll (16-0, 3 KOs) looks to squash those plans. The 26-year-old earned the title shot by going to a split draw against Guillaume Frenois in December. Join DAZN and watch Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll on March 15“This is what dreams are made of — topping a bill in America for a world title on St Patrick’s Day weekend,” said Carroll. “This changes my family’s life forever. I always come to bring the fight, I wear my heart on my sleeve so every time I am in that ring you get the purest me.” He touched the beard. 😳There’s definitely bad blood between @TevinFarmer22 & @jono_carroll. #FarmerCarroll pic.twitter.com/2j2EA4v9pW— Sporting News Fights (@sn_fights) March 13, 2019 When is the Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll fight?Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll will take place Friday, March. 15. The undercard is scheduled to begin at 7 p.m. ET., followed by the main card — which also features Katie Taylor vs. Rose Volante and Gabriel Rosado vs. Maciej Sulecki — at 9 p.m.How do I watch Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll?The Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll fight is not available via traditional pay-per-view methods. Instead, fans in North America can take advantage of a 30-day free trial to watch the fight online with DAZN, the global sports live-streaming service.DAZN is available on a variety of platforms, including Roku, Apple TV, Google Chromecast, iOS, Android, Xbox One, Playstation 4 and Playstation 3, as well as Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari browsers via DAZN.com .MORE ABOUT DAZN• Meet DAZN, the first dedicated live sports streaming service• What sports are live-streamed on DAZN?• How much does DAZN’s live sports streaming service cost?How much does the Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll fight cost?A new subscriber to DAZN gets the first month of service free, which means you wouldn’t have to pay a penny to watch the Farmer vs. Carroll fight. If you have previously signed up for DAZN, the fight is included as part of your $9.99 monthly subscription cost.A subscription also includes access to all of DAZN’s live events, as well as highlights, replays, behind-the-scenes features, original shows and live news reports. There is no contract, so DAZN subscribers can cancel at any time.Where is the Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll fight?Tevin Farmer and Jono Carroll will fight at the Liacouras Center in Philadelphia.MORE: Join DAZN to watch more than 100 fight nights a year Tevin Farmer record and bioName: Tevin FarmerNationality: AmericanBorn: July 30, 1990Height: 5-6 Reach: 67″Total fights: 33Record: 28-4-1 with one no-contest and six knockouts.Jono Carroll record and bioName: Jono CarrollNationality: IrishBorn: April 12, 1992Height: N/A Reach: N/ATotal fights: 17Record: 16-0-1 with three knockouts.Tevin Farmer vs. Jono Carroll fight cardMatchupClassBeltTevin Farmer vs. Jono CarrollJunior LightweightIBFKatie Taylor vs. Rose VolanteLightweightWBA/IBF (Taylor), WBO (Volante)Gabriel Rosado vs. Maciej SuleckiMiddleweight…Luke Campbell vs. Adrian YoungLightweight…Raymond Ford vs. Weusi JohnsonFeatherweight…Daniyar Yeleussinov vs. Silverio OrtizWelterweight…Hank Lundy vs. Avery SparrowLightweight…