Sea salt as an ice core proxy for past sea ice extent: a process-based model study

first_imgSea ice is a reflection of, and a feedback on the Earth’s climate. We explore here, using a global atmospheric chemistry-transport model, the use of sea salt in Antarctic ice cores to obtain continuous long-term, regionally-integrated records of past sea ice extent, synchronous with ice core records of climate. The model includes the production, transport and deposition of sea salt aerosol from the open ocean and ‘blowing snow’ on sea ice. Under current climate conditions, we find that meteorology, not sea ice extent, is the dominant control on the atmospheric concentration of sea salt reaching coastal- and continental Antarctic sites on inter-annual timescales. However, through a series of idealised sensitivity experiments, we demonstrate that sea salt has potential as a proxy for larger changes in sea ice extent (e.g. glacial-interglacial). Treating much of the sea ice under glacial conditions as a source of salty blowing snow, we demonstrate that the increase in sea ice extent alone (without changing the meteorology) could drive, for instance, a 68% increase in atmospheric sea salt concentration at the site of the Dome C ice core, which exhibits an approximate two-fold glacial increase in sea salt flux. We also show how the sensitivity of this potential proxy decreases towards glacial sea ice extent—the basis of an explanation previously proposed for the lag observed between changes in sea salt flux and δD (an ice core proxy for air temperature) at glacial terminations. The data thereby permit simultaneous changes in sea ice extent and climate.last_img read more

Messi, Ronaldo still aren’t on Pele’s level claims World Cup winner

first_imgLionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo still haven’t reached Pele’s level according to Brazilian legend Tostao. Messi and Ronaldo have dominated football since their respective debuts and are regarded as two of the greatest ever. However, World Cup winner Tostao was quick to explain why the Barcelona and Juventus forwards can’t compare to Pele quite yet. He told FIFA.com per IBTimes: “I think Pele was better than all of them. For me, there’s no comparison. Pele was far more complete. He had every quality that a forward could have. He didn’t have one defect. Loading… “Messi’s spectacular, but he doesn’t head the ball like Pele did, he doesn’t shoot as well with both feet, he doesn’t pull off the moves that Pele did. Cristiano Ronaldo is an exceptional player, but he doesn’t have the ability that Pele had and he doesn’t pull off the incredible passes that Pele did. “If you take the qualities of Cristiano Ronaldo and Messi, put them together, then you’d have a player to compare to Pele!” The former midfielder also addressed Diego Maradona’s standings in the ‘GOAT’ debate. “Maradona was spectacular, but he wasn’t on Pele’s level physically, he didn’t score the numbers of goals Pele did,” he explained. Read Also: Tension mounts in Premier League relegation battle “We cannot forget about Zico, Ronaldinho and Ronaldo while in Europe, Franz Beckenbauer and Johan Cruyff. “Now, it’s not my fault, but I think Pele was better than them all.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 center_img When Pele himself was drawn into the Messi vs Ronaldo chatter, he opted for Ronaldo as he is “more consistent”. “Today the best player in the world is Cristiano Ronaldo,” Pele told YouTube channel Pilhado per Daily Mail. “I think he’s the best, because he’s more consistent, but you can’t forget about [Lionel] Messi, of course, but he’s not a striker.” Despite his glowing praise of the duo, Pele still arrived at a simple conclusion when deciding who is the best of all time – himself. “It is a question that is difficult to answer,” he begun when asked who is the best. Promoted Content7 Universities In The World With The Highest Market ValueIs This The Most Delicious Food In The World?Couples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable Way10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do7 Breathtaking Train Stations Around The Globe6 Natural History Museums That Have World’s Greatest CollectionsMind-Bending Technology That Was Predicted Before It AppearedWho Earns More Than Ronaldo?5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks9 Facts You Should Know Before Getting A Tattoo8 Addictive And Fun Coffee FactsTop 10 TV Characters Meant To Be Iconiclast_img read more

Ability to add photos does not change app’s offensive nature

first_imgLate last month, social media platform Yik Yak announced its intent to start including pictures along with posts. Yik Yak, an anonymous bulletin board, has invited controversy since its inception due to many reports of cyberbullying and offensive language. Though the public should allow time for the company to shed its negative image and adopt an inclusive identity, this new feature fails to move Yik Yak forward and ultimately creates a more derisive environment.Unlike its counterpart, Whisper, which allows users to post completely anonymously from anywhere in the world, Yik Yak provides a more personal atmosphere due to posts that can only be viewed within a 1.5-mile radius. Because of this, the app is popular in communities, especially college campuses, with users validating each post with an up or down vote. According to CEO Tyler Droll, it is the college students who often engage in discussion and debate over campus topics that have requested the addition of photos along with their “yaks.”The reality is, prior to the addition of images on Yik Yak, reports of dangerous users had already put the company under scrutiny. In October 2014, police officers arrested a user for threatening to “kill everyone in Penn State Main.” University of Michigan discovered in April that a Yik Yak user in its community posted an apparent suicide note. Not to mention, at Utica College, an army of people spewed directed slurs at the campus’ transgender population. These are some of the many incidents which have propelled the public to believe that the mere existence of Yik Yak is highly detrimental to the student population.The addition of pictures on Yik Yak fights fire with fire. Granted, posting each photo comes with many Yik Yak-imposed safeguards. For instance, any picture containing a face or signs of nudity will be immediately revoked. These restrictions are seemingly put in place to ensure the safety of Yik Yak users; however, they also silently confirm the existence and inevitability of malicious content. Obviously, setting the availability of each board to such a narrow proximity increases the likelihood of targeted posts. And now, internet bullies are equipped with two different kinds of weapons: text and images.Perhaps the biggest contributor to Yik Yak’s nastiness is in the very fabric of the app’s construction. Anonymity will always give endless power to cruelly mock and make threats. As psychiatrist Dr. Keith Ablow put it, “Psychologically, Yik Yak actually removes all pretense of being a person with empathy, genuinely connected to other human beings.” No amount of innovation, especially not the addition of photos, will steer Yik Yak toward a path of humanity.Even at its very best, Yik Yak is still irresponsible. Users commenting on their mundane lives are part of a faceless mob, ready to attack by force of voting or posting.To educate this crowd, Yik Yak’s endeavors should include teaching its users the effects of each publication, no matter how mundane. In contrast, the photo feature does nothing to strengthen Yik Yak’s moral compass. Once an image is posted to cyberspace, the poster has no idea about how his or her picture has traveled.That being said, Yik Yak aims to foster patches of communities, and its growth thus far on college campuses seems to be an indomitable force — the app is found on more than 1,500 campuses. Communities, however, are made up of people who deserve the respect of one another. Yik Yak’s injustices cannot simply be eradicated by the new picture feature, and by not teaching users the responsibility of mindful language, Yik Yak fails to progress. New strategy, please.Danni Wang is a junior majoring in psychology. She is also the lifestyle assignments editor of the Daily Trojan. “Point/Counterpoint” will run Tuesdays.last_img read more

COVID-19 Case Update: PBC 1,333; Broward 2,480; Miami-Dade 5,898

first_imgThe number of coronavirus cases in Florida is quickly approaching the 17,000 mark.According to the Department of Health, there are 16,826 total cases of COVID-19 in our state as of Thursday evening.At least 371 Florida residents have died from COVID-19.Current Positive Cases in FloridaPalm Beach County: 1,333 cases-75 deaths-676 men, 645 women-239 hospitalizationsBroward County: 2,480 cases-67 deaths-1,341 men, 1,120 women-357 hospitalizationsMiami-Dade County: 5,898 cases-66 deaths-3,092 men, 2,735 women-450 hospitalizationslast_img read more

VELVET MESQUITE, SHEER PLEASURE, CHATI’S ON TOP, MY FIONA, QIAONA & SINGING KITTY ALL PROMINENT IN WIDE OPEN $150,000 SUNSHINE MILLIONS FILLY & MARE TURF SPRINT SATURDAY AT 6 ½ FURLONGS DOWN HILLSIDE TURF

first_imgARCADIA, Calif. (Jan. 27, 2016)–In what looms as the most competitive race on an action-packed Sunshine Millions Day program Saturday at Santa Anita, the $150,000 Sunshine Millions Filly & Mare Turf Sprint, to be run at 6 ½ furlongs down the Camino Real Turf Course, has attracted a field of 14 older fillies and mares, with 12 to start.In a tough call, Harris Farms’ homebred Velvet Mesquite, who comes off a close seventh place run in the Grade II Monrovia Stakes down the hill on Jan. 3, may rate top billing for trainer Blake Heap. A 6-year-old mare by In Excess, she is 11-5-1-2 over the course, including a win in the Calirornia Distaff Handicap here in October, 2014. Although winless in seven starts last year, she had a pair of seconds and thirds, which included a close second down the hill in the Grade III Sen. Ken Maddy Stakes three starts back on Oct. 25.Out of the Huddle Up mare Mesquite, Velvet Mesquite is 18-5-4-2 overall with earnings of $343,446.Trained by Phil D’Amato and owned by Little Red Feather Racing or RM Racing, Sheer Pleasure, a two-time state-bred stakes winner who has been the beaten favorite in her last two starts, would appear to rate a big chance as she tries the hillside turf for the first time. A 4-year-old filly by Birdonthewire, she was most recently sixth, beaten 4 ½ lengths as the 9-5 favorite in a 6 ½ furlong allowance here on Jan. 10. She has three wins from eight starts and has earnings of $307,700.An even 10th, beaten 6 ½ lengths in the Grade I, one mile turf Matriarch Stakes at Del Mar Nov. 29, trainer Mike Puype’s Chati’s On Top took the one mile turf Solana Beach Handicap at Del Mar three starts back on Aug. 16 and was fifth as the 5-2 favorite two back in the Maddy Stakes here Oct. 25.A 5-year-old mare by Old Topper, Chati’s On Top, who is owned by Little Red Feather Racing and Marsha Naify, is 5-1-2-1 down the hillside turf and is 17-4-6-2 overall with earnings of $296,978.Talented My Fiona, who won three state bred stakes as a juvenile, could well have needed her most recent start, a third place finish in a 6 ½ furlong allowance here on Jan. 10. A 4-year-old filly by Kentucky-based Ghostzapper, My Fiona was bred in California by Terry Lovingier and is owned by Lovingier, Tom Beckerle and Amanda Navarro.Originally conditioned by Walther Solis, My Fiona is now trained by Gary Sherlock, who combined with Lovingier and jockey Fernando Perez to win the Grade II Santa Monica Stakes this past Saturday with California-bred Lost Bus. My Fiona, who will be trying turf for the first time, is 8-4-1-3, with earnings of $373,934.Curt and Lila Lanning’s hard hitting Qiaona comes off a facile three length allowance win going  1 1/16 miles over a soft turf at Golden Gate on Jan. 1 and merits respect off an impressive resume that includes an overall mark of 31-7-6-4 and earnings of $585,643. A 6-year-old mare by Wilko, she is trained by Ed Moger and was a winner over the course of the California Distaff Handicap in October, 2013. She also has a second and a third place finish from five lifetime tries down the hill.Trainer Matt Chew’s Singing Kitty, a winner of the downhill Unzip Me Stakes three starts back on Sept. 26, comes off an even ninth, beaten five lengths, in the Grade II Monrovia on Jan. 3 and will be ridden back by Gary Stevens. A storybook $32,000 claim on Dec. 11, 2014, she won three stakes and banked $267,800 last year. Owned by Chris Aulds and Peter Jeong, the 4-year-old filly by Ministers Wild Cat is 14-5-1-1 overall with earnings of $333,238.The complete field for the Sunshine Millions Filly & Mare Turf Sprint, to be run as the seventh race on a 10-race card Saturday, with jockeys and weights in post position order: Yana, Agapito Delgadillo, 119; My Fiona, Fernando Perez, 121; Smoove It, Mario Gutierrez, 121; Chati’s On Top, Santiago Gonzalez, 124; Heavens Stairway, Joe Talamo, 121; Sheer Pleasure, Tyler Baze, 124; Velvet Mesquite, Kent Desormeaux, 121; Singing Kitty, Gary Stevens, 124; Jenna’s Faith, Drayden Van Dyke, 119; Light One, Flavien Prat, 121; Qiaona, Victor Espinoza, 121, and Ashley’s Sassy, Alonso Quinonez, 119. ALSO ELIGIBLE: Nite Delite, Edwin Maldonado, 119, and Princess Bertrando, Abel Lezcano, 119.                First post time on Saturday is early, at 12 noon. Admission gates open at 10 a.m. WITH 14 OLDER FILLIES & MARES ENTERED, 12 TO FACE STARTER IN TOUGHEST RACE ON SUNSHINE MILLIONS DAY CARDlast_img read more

Mixed feelings as business leaders sleep rough

first_imgOn one of the coldest nights of winter, chief executives from more than 240 companies slept on the pavement. Their efforts were both lauded and criticised, but they raised funds for Girls and Boys Town South Africa and built a lot of empathy for the homeless. The CEO SleepOut was a fun night out for business leaders, even though they had to brave the cold Johannesburg weather. The event brought in more than R24-million for Girls & Boys Town South Africa. (Image: Shamin Chibba) • Pavement Bookworm ‘just wants to tell stories’ • Mam’ Khanyi rescues Hillbrow’s forgotten children • Jerome Slim Du Plooy cares about making a difference • Cheesekids help the less fortunate • A better South Africa, one baby at a time Shamin ChibbaOn a cold June evening in Johannesburg, The Commodores’ Nightshift blared from subwoofers over Gwen Lane in Sandton. “Gonna be a long night/It’s gonna be all right/On the nightshift.”It was an appropriate song, since the entire street was packed with chief executives from over 240 companies. They were participating in the CEO SleepOut. They left their warm beds to sleep on the street, albeit in warm sleeping bags, for one night to learn what homeless people go through and, in the process, to raise funds for Girls and Boys Town South Africa.The Johannesburg event ran on the same evening, 18 June, as SleepOuts in Auckland, Toronto, New York, London and Sydney.Some of the more high-profile sleepers included Adrian Gore of Discovery, Rudolph Straeuli of Golden Lions Rugby, Zoiab Hoosen of Microsoft South Africa and adventurer Riaan Manser, who promised to sleep in nothing more than a Speedo.The chief executives huddled around bonfires, sitting on chairs made from cardboard which they would later turn into beds. They listened to stories told by real homeless people, one of them being Philani Dladla, who is also known as Johannesburg’s Pavement Bookworm, and were able to Tweet the progress of their night.Some of the participants ate before they hit the street; but once they were there, they were given only a small bowl of soup, prepared by top chef Reuben Riffel, and one bread roll for supper.For these men and women, it was a very expensive sleepover, costing their companies R100 000 each. Organisers the CEO SleepOut Trust, aimed to raise R25-million, but fell short by R400 000. All of the money will go to Girls and Boys Town South Africa, an NGO that helps nurture troubled youths. Gwen Lane in Sandton was home to more than 240 business leaders for a single night. Many found the experience of sleeping out on the street on a cold night gruelling. (Image: Shamin Chibba)SleepOut a gesture of solidarityIvor Chipkin, director of the Public Affairs Research Institute, says he participated to quell the cynicism he finds is pervasive in South African society. As an academic, he was the anomaly at the event.“There’s also a lot of cynicism in South Africa and I think gestures of solidarity need to be embraced. And this is a gesture of solidarity by the wealthy and powerful with people who are less fortunate than them. There’s a sense that nothing matters anymore and I think these sorts of gestures are valuable.”The chief executive of printing company Ren-form, Thomas du Sart, said he chose to participate after a lot of pressure to do so from his family. “It took about a week of nagging from my daughter and wife and eventually I gave in and said I would do it.”Du Sart is a resident of Riverlea, a poverty-stricken township in southern Johannesburg, and said he understood the suffering the poor experienced. “Coming from a disadvantaged background myself I have been exposed to poverty on the streets I have an idea of how people suffer on the streets, so if I can do my bit then I will put up my hand for that.”To the cynics who doubt the effectiveness of the SleepOut, Du Sart was straightforward. “The more the merrier. Why not come and join us and make it better for everybody?”Some were uncertain as to how to perceive the event while others called it an extravagant camping trip and even condescending to the poor. Not sure how I feel about the CEO sleep out. Seems like poverty porn. And the massive metro presence. I mean do the poor and homeless get this kind of support? Then it should be called camping. Posted by Hamish Hoosen Pillay on Thursday, 18 June 2015curious about the opinions of the homeless about this ceo sleepout. if they’re not offended by it, why should we be? — Claire Mawisa (@clairemawisa) June 18, 2015Not interested in debating this #CEOSleepOut thingy. Long as they raise enough money to remove even 100 orphans off the streets I’m cool. — Nchema (@ShottaZee) June 17, 2015Tim Blair re CEO Sleepout “instead of joining the homeless outside,how about our CEOs invite the homeless to spend a nice warm night inside” — Jason Morrison (@JasonMorrisonAU) June 22, [email protected] @News24 they gona milk this for daaaays,these white collar skelms should b sent to the Hague — Matlotla Lesomo (@mjleshomo) June 20, 2015Housing a concernJerome Lottering, the acting chairperson for Camissa Movement for Equality, stood outside the blockaded street where the event took place to express his concern over poor housing, particularly in his community of Eldorado Park. His NGO intends on unifying the coloured, San, mixed race, Khoi, Griqua and Khoi San communities in South Africa and giving them a voice.Although he supports the CEO SleepOut and of the work of Girls and Boys Town, he wanted to use the event to “show solidarity with those who are living in squatter camps”. “We want to highlight this issue because we tried to contact the Department of Human Settlements and the Gauteng premier [David Makhura] yet none of them are coming back to us.”He said that it was the government’s constitutional obligation to provide housing to people who could not provide housing for themselves. “[The] government should come to the party and build houses. It seems to me that people don’t know what is going on in townships.” Jerome Lottering, left, the acting chairperson for Camissa Movement for Equality, used the CEO SleepOut as a platform to make the public aware of the homeless situation in his area of Eldorado Park. (Image: Shamin Chibba)AftermathAccording to news reports after the event, some participants said they were overwhelmed by the experience and were humbled by it.An unnamed participant told Eyewitness News he was humbled by the experience. “It grounds me when I have to experience what they experience every day.”Richard Poplak wrote on the Daily Maverick that the participants did not have publicise their charity. “As for the homeless, what do they want? I dunno—go and ask them. My guess is that most have no clue that the 0.1% took a night off to play at being homeless for their cause. They might wonder why all these fancy people didn’t just hand over the money quietly, without fanfare, without cameras, without all the corporate flimflam?“They might ask why these high priests found it necessary to perform empathy when empathy is a deeply personal engagement, a communion between souls that happens on the QT? They might remind these CEOs that when it comes to benevolence, there’s no need to tell the left hand what the right hand is doing?”last_img read more

You still have until April 15 to earn all 10 souvenirs

first_imgHave you visited Earth, Venus, and Mercury but have yet to venture to Pluto? Don’t worry, Planetary Pursuit explorer, you still have time to earn all 10 souvenirs and become an Official Space Explorer! Through April 15, find different cache types and collect points on the Friend League to earn up to 10 new souvenirs. Ground Control believes in you and your geocaching abilities. Over and out. Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedPlanetary Pursuit launch support (aka FAQ)February 27, 2018In “News”Planetary Pursuit Starthilfe (aka FAQ)February 27, 2018In “Deutsch”It’s not too late to become an Official Space ExplorerMarch 27, 2018In “News”last_img read more

Hacking Europe’s Cultural Heritage with Europeana’s New API

first_img5 Outdoor Activities for Beating Office Burnout Tags:#art#Location#web audrey watters Related Posts Europe’s rich cultural heritage can be found in museums, libraries, galleries, cultural institutes, and archives throughout the continent. And thanks to digitization efforts and Europeana, much of this heritage can also be found online. Europeana is an Internet portal that provides public access to Europe’s digital libraries – more than 15 million cultural objects including paintings, drawings, archival papers, books, letters, radio broadcasts, newsreels, films including some of the world’s most famous cultural artifacts such as the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton’s notes and book about the Laws of Motion. About 1500 institutions have contributed to Europeana, including the British Library in London, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdamn, and the Louvre in Paris.Anyone can visit the Europeana website to search through the materials. And now, thanks to its newly released API, other applications and services may soon be on the way.At the beginning of the month, Europeana held its first in what will be a series of hackathons, a way to showcase the potential of the API to data providers, partners and end-users. Europeana’s new API is a search API that lets you search and display collections, metadata, and previews.The Europeana Hackathon Projects The Hackathon earlier this month was by invitation only, and currently European’s API is only available to its partner developers. Those restrictions stem, in part, from the agreements that Europeana has had to make with institutions in order to access, search, and display their digitized collections.Nonetheless, those who did participate in the Hackathon did build some great tools, including at least one that Product Developer David Haskiya says that Europeana will use itself. One project was component built for the open-source content management system Joomla that includes both a keyword search and a map search. With the latter, you can look up objects in the the Europeana database within a region. Another project built a wrapper for the Europeana API, helping geo-enable the queries. Then, by interfacing with OpenLayers, you can draw a box on a map, setting a boundary for your search, which will plot the results on a map. (You can view the demo here.) And just so you don’t restrict your searches solely to the most famous of Europe’s cultural artifacts, one project will help with discovery: a random image explorer. 9 Books That Make Perfect Gifts for Industry Ex… 12 Unique Gifts for the Hard-to-Shop-for People… 4 Keys to a Kid-Safe App Why Digital Libraries, APIs, and Hackathons MatterThe debates surrounding the importance of and the obstacles to any sort of national digital library have certainly resurfaced following the recent Google Books decision. Who owns the rights to cultural artifacts? Who can and should be responsible for digitizing these artifacts? Who then stores them? Who can access them, and how? These debates, of course, aren’t new – in the U.S. or in Europe. In January, a European Union report cautioned its member states against turning over this efforts entirely to the private sector.While these contentious legal issues are still being worked out, the Europeana API – and the hackathon – point to another important aspect of these sorts of projects. A digital library isn’t simply about the preservation of important cultural material. It’s about making sure that material is accessible. And with an active support for linked data and now with an API, it looks like Europeana is well on its way to moving these sorts of efforts forward.Image credits: Ton Zijlstralast_img read more

Zaheer’s experience helped the other bowlers too: Dhoni

first_imgIndian captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni lauded his bowlers for making a splendid comeback in their 87-run win at Durban after being sent for a leatherhunt during the first Test match at the Centurion. The skipper had special words of praise for pace spearhead Zaheer Khan.India beat SA, level seriesDurban Test: India beat SA”After the first Test, we came back nicely as far as batting was concerned, but we were a bit concerned about our ability to take 20 wickets. Very happy to see the bowlers bounce back here,” the Indian captain said at the post-match presentation ceremony.About Zaheer’s performance (six wickets in the match), the skipper said, “I have always maintained that Zaheer has been the best fast bowler that India have had in recent times. He has the ability to execute his plans well. Even if his primary plan doesn’t work out, he has a Plan B ready. Also him being around, even the other bowlers get a lot of help.”The captain also had words of praise for his senior-most bowler Harbhajan Singh.”Harbhajan has been a great performer for India over last 10 years. It’s always great to have him in the side. He did a great job as he bowled long spells from one end as the fast bowlers weren’t getting much help from that end.”For someone who hasn’t exactly been lucky with the coin, Dhoni smiled and said, “It is very predictable for me to lose the toss.””The wicket didn’t misbehave on the first day as we thought it would before the match. I felt that 200-odd was a decent score. After we got 70 plus lead, I was confident of doing well. Obviously we need to improve on our second innings batting. We would like to improve further and win the Test match at Cape Town.”advertisementWhen asked about the New Year Plans, Dhoni said, “We have a day off tomorrow and we can shop a lot. We will party in the night but not get drunk.”Dhoni’s South African counterpart Graeme Smith was graceful in admitting that the visitors really played well.”India have played really well. It has been a very good Test. We fought hard, but couldn’t get across the line. We didn’t bat well after a long time. Our batsmen have let us down. We have some work to do before Cape Town. It’s disappointing not to chase down the target today,” Smith said.The South African captain admitted that Indians kept up the pressure and credit should be given to Dhoni and his boys.”India kept up the pressure, and credit to Dhoni and his team for bouncing back. They are No. 1 in the world. We have to see how we can bounce back now.”VVS Laxman feels that his 96 today will be right up there among some of the memorable knocks that he has played over the years.”I always take pride in what I do overseas. Beating South Africa in South Africa, that too in Durban, it is definitely up there. In Durban, you need to get adjusted to the bounce.I waited for that and got a good partnership with Zaheer,” Laxman said.With inputs from PTIlast_img read more