A recent visit to areas in the Upper Berbice Region (Region 10) has revealed that the communities are in dire need of improvement in the areas of education, health, agriculture and physical infrastructure for the benefit of youths. The issues were highlighted by Regional Chairman Renis Morian and Vice Chairman Elroy Adolph during a press conference. The region’s leaders stressed that in the area of agriculture, an important point to note is that a community boat which was initially intended to provide assistance for farmers in transporting their produce is presently “parked” and remains non- operable at Sand Hill. Morian said this is the case, even as farmers in the area are suffering tremendously in transporting their produce to be marketed.“What really caught us is that there is a huge boat parked in the Berbice River and it is reported that this boat was built and taken there a week before elections and they’re saying it’s an election gimmick. Whether it’s an election gimmick or not the past Government had removed the boat which had transported persons to New Amsterdam with their agriculture produce. Now we have a huge boat parked there… I am approaching the Office of the President, Ministry of Public Infrastructure, so that that boat… could be put into use. We see it as a boost to enhance agriculture and the movement of persons within the Berbice River,” he stressed.Additionally, it was noted that the boat is missing just one crucial element, however Morian said a diagnostic test needs to be done to ascertain the situation with the said boat.“We’re going to go through the right channel to make sure that that boat is commissioned under the right Ministry. We have millions of dollars in tax payers money lying there…not being used and farmers want to get there produce to market and this is not being done,” he said.In addition, the Regional Chairman said it was observed that there is a huge generator at Muritaro presently parked in the bushes. According to Morian, information received suggests that it has never been in operation but was placed there under the previous Administration. He said he is seeking to have it moved and taken to Linden to be serviced so that it can be beneficial to communities without electricity and solar.Meanwhile, Regional Vice Chairman Adolph said a visit to several schools revealed deplorable washroom facilities, which are out of service. At Sand Hill, he said the teacher’s washroom facility has been out of order for over two years. He added that requests were made for more health personnel to visit the communities since it was highlighted that residents find it is too expensive to travel to New Amsterdam.“The people in the Berbice River are requesting some more help from the Ministry of Health. So we are calling on the Ministry of Health to deliver a little more… We also discovered shortage of drugs… nurses and health workers, doctors if possible need to visit the areas more often… farming is not payable like before because they don’t have transport for [their] produce. When they hire transportation it’s very expensive…so life becomes more difficult everyday for the folks in the Berbice River,” Adolph said.
We are today calling on all Liberians, between the ages of 16 and 40, who want to start their own businesses, to come forward. To do what? To apply to the Entrepreneurship Program of the Tony Elumelu Foundation (TEF). The TEF has pledged to train you in realizing your ambition to start and grow your own businesses.Our Business Reporter David Yates, who wrote the story about this challenge in Monday’s edition, said the aim of the Program is to enhance and materialize Tony Emelelu’s philosophy and vision of africapitalism, aimed at “positioning Africa’s private sector and most importantly entrepreneurs as the catalyst for the socioeconomic development of the African continent.”But first, let us explain what an entrepreneur is. An entrepreneur is one who, according to the wealthy Nigerian business tycoon, Tony Elumelu, “wishes to grow his own business in order to realize his ambition and vision. We are,” Mr. Elumelu continued, “showing what the African private sector can achieve, how hard work and enterprise can catalyze real, sustainable development.” Mr. Elumelu is a major investor in United Bank Africa (UBA). Reporter Yates also quoted TEF Chief Executive Officer Parminder Vir Obe as saying, “The program will continue to surpass the expectations of entrepreneurs and its success is palpable (real, profound).”The TEF journey, she said, “begins when you make the decision to complete the application. We are seeking real entrepreneurs, people who can take risk and reap rewards, not just for themselves, but their communities and countries.”Reporter Yates named three successful entrepreneurs who have successfully gone through the program. One is a Gambian, Mass Taal, who turned his US$5,000 seed capital into US$1.2 million in revenues.Another is Tanzania’s Bukhary Kibonajoro, who used the TEF mentorship to create within a year 34 new jobs in education and training for over 100 new local businesses.A third successful entrepreneur is Chioma Okonu, whose waste management business has created ancillary revenue for over 6,000 households, creating 40 jobs and a US$50,000 profit.The Daily Observer is today calling on Liberians between the ages of 16 and 40 to apply to the TEF Entrepreneurial Training Program for fellowships to enter its mentoring program. You may apply by using the website www.tonyelumelufoundation.org/teep/faqs. We at this newspaper have long been calling on our people, Liberians, to plunge into business by choosing a business sector, be it a grocery shop, a building materials store, an agricultural enterprise such as poultry and eggs or a vegetable or flower garden, or whatever. Plunge out into the deep, take a risk and start a business of your own, no matter how young you may be.We need, at this time, to tell you how the Daily Observer newspaper got started. When Kenneth & Mae Gene Best resigned their jobs in Nairobi, Kenya, he from the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and she from a philanthropic organization, they returned home with the aim of starting Liberia’s first independent daily newspaper.The couple had no money, except for US$4,000, which was all they had been able to save after working six and a half years in Kenya. That was the seed money we used to start the newspaper. We were also able to convince a few Liberians to take shares in the business, valued at US$10 per share, with shareholders averaging US$75 to US$150. We were also able to obtain a loan from the Liberia Bank for Development and Investment (LBDI), which was approved on October 30, 1980.The newspaper was launched on February 16, 1981. But it was scarcely six weeks before we ran into serious trouble with Justice Minister Chea Cheapoo who, angry at a story we had carried on him, threatened to hunt down the newspaper publisher, Mr. Best, and shoot him! The Minister also deported three of the staff back to Ghana and Nigeria, demanded that the newspaper, an entirely new business, cough up US$3,000 to pay fines he had levied against the three deportees and also to pay their transport fares back home. Three months later, in June1981, the military junta shut down the newspaper, arrested Mr. Best, Mrs. Best and several of their staff, including three other female employees, and imprisoned them; the men in the Post Stockade and the women at the CID cell. The newspaper suffered three more closures, in August 1983, January 1984 and January 1985, this time for nearly two years.But that was not all. In 1987 President Doe, who though having been elected President was still behaving like a military dictator, ordered his Defense Minister Gray D. Allison, who was also Chair of the board of the Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), to cut the Observer’s electricity!In addition to all this, three times the government attempted to burn the newspaper’s office. At the third attempt, they burnt the building to the ground, and we lost everything!By that time the war was on and Mr. Best and family were in The Gambia trying to establish another newspaper, which they did successfully—until the new military head of state Yaya Jammeh, deported Mr. Best in August 1994.But despite all of these trials and tribulations, the Daily Observer was able to maintain a staff of 40 full time staff and employed over 400 newspaper vendors, most of whom paid their own way through night school and many built their own houses and supported their families. The Daily Observer management was also able to pay back its LBDI loan.We wish to assure all young entrepreneurs that you will NOT suffer the same fate as befell the Daily Observer. The political and business climate has dramatically and positively changed; and we have and will continue to have for the foreseeable future, a democratic and a very business-friendly government. So we urge our young people to go forward and apply to the TEF, become entrepreneurs and create your own businesses. One day you will succeed, become your own boss, and be able to employ others and make a constructive and meaningful contribution to national development. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
…4 others to lead defenceAs the Preliminary Inquiry (PI) continues into the execution of a domestic worker on the Corentyne, one of the five accused was set free on Monday by Magistrate Charlyn Artiga at the Whim Magistrate’s Court.Shabikie Albert, also called Shabikie Thompson, of Lot 107 Rose Hall Town, was one of five persons charged with the February 7, 2017 killing of Lilawatie Muhammed, 45, a domestic worker at her Lot 198 Sixth Street, Tain Settlement, Corentyne home.Shabikie AlbertMuhammed was killed execution style when two masked persons broke into her home and demanded money under the pretext that it was a robbery. When she said she did not have money, one of them put a gun to her head and discharged two bullets shattering her brains.Magistrate Artiga in summing up the prosecution’s case explained that although Albert had knowledge of the plot to kill Muhammed, it did not constitute a crime.She, however, ruled that a prima facie case was made against the other four accused. They will have to lead a defence and have been ordered to return to court on October 15, 2018.The four accused are Oliver Permaul, 36, of Lot 100 Tain; his wife, Rose Hall Town businesswoman Nazeema Permaul, 42, of the same address; Andre James, also called “Andy”, 26, a tattoo artist of Lot 46 A George Street, Rose Hall Town; and Rohan Johnson also called “Jamakie”, 38, a carpenter of Clardon, Jamaica and Lot 107 Second Street, Rose Hall Town.It had been reported that Nazeema Permaul was the mastermind of a plot to kill Muhammed. It was also reported that Permaul allegedly paid $400,000 to have the woman executed.Muhammed was involved in an extra-marital relationship with Permaul’s husband.The Permauls are being represented by Attorneys-at-Law Mescaline Bacchus and Rohan Jagmohan while Albert was represented by Sasha Robertson.
The multimillion-dollar Child and Family Friendly Centre which will serve as a temporary shelter for the less fortunate is slated to open soon.Social Protection Minister Amna AllyThis is according to Social Protection Minister Amna Ally, who told reporters on Friday that the facility, which is the first of its kind in Guyana, was expected to be completed in another six weeks.“Actually, the outer building is completed, but there are some fineries that have to be done to make it habitable and safe. So, the opening is going to be probably by the end of September, early October,” Ally said.The facility’s purpose is to avoid separation of families and provide care for children as they transition from difficult circumstances.“There are eight family apartments, independent family apartments for families. There are also four apartments for children of different ages, boys and girls, and there is a training centre for counselling sessions. We do not want to just provide housing for persons that will be here at the facility but ensure they received every other necessity to help them transform,” Child Care and Protection Agency (CCPA) Director Ann Greene had said earlier this year.Other facilities constructed in the compound are a mess hall, administration building, storage department, coaching department and playground. Greene had highlighted that there would be strict regulations and standard operating procedures implemented to guide the acceptance of families who desire to use the facility.Three years ago, a fire gutted the previous Drop-In Centre on Hadfield Street, Georgetown. However, this newly-constructed facility will have heightened safety measures.The 2016 fire had destroyed the entire top flat of the centre’s Hadfield Street location and claimed the lives of Antonio and Joshua George, aged two and six. The preliminary report on the fire had found that the centre had systematic problems and bad policy arrangements in the event of a fire or similar emergency.A Commission of Inquiry (CoI) report into the fire conducted by Retired Colonel Windee Algernon found that the children/staffer ratio was not adhered to and that on the morning of the fire, there were not enough staff on duty to meet the needs of the children. Additionally, the house service supervisor, while she had the authority to call out more staff, failed to do so.The CoI had also found that there were written guidelines for the management of crisis situations, including fires; however, the house manager and other senior staff seemed unfamiliar with them. And so when the fire occurred, there was confusion and panic, resulting in the tragedy.Of note too is that the Inquiry found that the fire was caused by a defective electrical outlet fitted with exposed wires on the eastern wall of the girls’ dormitory.
The Fort St. John RCMP and Fire Department are investigating truck fire early Sunday.The fire was near the intersection of 91st avenue and 91st street in Mathews Park. Initial reports suggest that the fire may have been set intentionally, as the fire started in the rear of the pickup before spreading to the cab. Crews were able to contain the fire to pickup truck, which was completely destroyed.Witnesses near the scene believe that they saw a group of three or more youth leaving the area around the same time as the fire, but were unable to provide accurate descriptions. Fort St. John general duty members as well as bike patrol members were unable to locate anyone in the area.- Advertisement -At this time, the police have no known suspect(s) and are asking for the public’s help in identifying the person or person’s responsible for this incident.The registered owner of the truck received minor burns to his forearm and hand while attempting to retrieve personal belongings from the truck.If you have any further information about this fire, please contact the RCMP at 250-787-8140 or Crime Stoppers at 1-800-222-8477 or online at www.crimestoppersfsj.ca Advertisement
Former Hartlepool manager Colin Cooper 1 Colin Cooper has quit his role as Hartlepool manager after his side’s 3-0 home defeat to Carlisle sent the club to the foot of the League Two table.Former Middlesbrough and Nottingham Forest defender Cooper, 47, offered his resignation just over 16 months after being appointed as John Hughes’ permanent successor.“We would like to thank Colin for his efforts during the last eighteen months,” said chairman Ken Hodcroft in a statement on the club’s official website.“We are glad that we gave him his break in management and would like to wish him every success in the future.”Cooper took his first full-time managerial position when succeeding Hughes at Victoria Park.But the club were relegated from League One at the end of his first season in charge and have won only two of their ten league games this time round.
13 FORWARD: Hristo Stoichkov (Bulgaria)The Bulgarian Golden Generation’s shining star – 1994 Ballon D’Or winner Stoichkov. He bagged more goals than both Romario and Baggio, taking home the Golden Boot with six. He led his team past defending-champions Germany in the quarter-finals, scoring a 75th minute equaliser before Yordan Letchkov grabbed the winner for the most stunning result in the country’s history. At club level, he formed one of the most brilliant strike partnerships in domestic history with Romario at Barcelona, spearheading Johan Cruyff’s ‘dream team’. Stoichkov became an idol for the club’s fans as they won four-consecutive La Ligas between 1991 and 1994.talkSPORT will be with listeners all day and all night at this years 2018 FIFA World Cup with over 800 hours of World Cup content and all 64 games live across the talkSPORT network. DEFENCE: Paolo Maldini (Italy)Footballing brilliance runs in the Maldini family – Paolo’s father Cesare was named in the 1962 All-Star team 32 years prior to the World Cup in the States. In 1994, Maldini led the Italian defence to the final, playing both as a centre-back and a full-back due to the absences of his Milan and Italy defensive teammates Franco Baresi, through injury, Mauro Tassotti, due to suspension after the quarter-finals, and Alessandro Costacurta, who was suspended for the final. Somehow, Italy still kept a clean sheet against Brazil in the final, but the penalty shootout defeat means the man with more minutes than any other at a World Cup (2,216) has never lifted the trophy. 13 13 13 13 The 2018 World Cup is just around the corner, so talkSPORT.com are trawling through the archives to relive past tournaments.Today we are taking a look at the 1994 edition, won by Brazil in the United States. 13 1994 WORLD CUP ALL-STAR TEAM 13 MIDFIELD: Tomas Brolin (Sweden)Probably the only man who can claim to be in both a World Cup All-Star team and The Times poll of the ’50 worst footballers to grace the Premier League’. After guiding the Swedes to an incredible third-place finish in 1994, Brolin signed for Leeds United a year later. His once-glittering career never recovered from the move, and by the age of 28 he had retired from playing due to several injury struggles. 13 MIDFIELD: Krasimir Balakov (Bulgaria)Bulgaria were another surprise package in 1994, finishing fourth with the help of this man Balakov. One of the country’s ‘Golden Generation’, he made 92 appearances, scoring 16 goals. However, the nation’s major star was Golden Boot winner Hristo Stoichkov, who you will meet later… GOALKEEPER: Michel Preud’homme (Belgium)Meet the first-ever winner of the Yashin Award, given to the top goalkeeper at a World Cup. Preud’homme was considered one of the world’s best and most consistent shot-stoppers during his career, and he was voted the most impressive in 1994. Belgium reached the last-16 of the tournament but were eliminated by reigning champions Germany following a 3-2 defeat. Throughout the competition, he made a habit of producing spectacular and decisive saves. FORWARD: Roberto Baggio (Italy)Why did it have to be him? Il Divin Codino (The Divine Ponytail) will be remembered as one of the most talented players ever to grace a World Cup, but the lasting image will always be his decisive penalty miss in the 1994 final. He was the main reason Italy were there – he led the Azzurri to the final with three match-winning performances in the knockout rounds, scoring five memorable goals. The stage was set for him to win the World Cup for his country, and the world watched on in horror as he blasted Italy’s fifth penalty over the bar. He described the moment as the worst of his career, saying it affected him for years. Still though, what an icon. 13 MIDFIELD: Gheorghe Hagi (Romania)Nicknamed ‘the Maradona of the Carpathians’, Hagi is a Romanian legend. He was named the country’s footballer of the year seven times and was good enough to play for both Barcelona and Real Madrid. In the opening game of the 1994 tournament, Hagi scored argubaly the most memorable goal, curling a 40-yard lob over Colombian goalkeeper Oscar Cordoba. It was one of three goals Romania’s all-tie record goalscorer grabbed in the States, with another moment of brilliance coming in their shock 3-2 victory over Argentina. MIDFIELD: Dunga (Brazil)Along with Xavi, he is one of only two men to have played in a World Cup, Olympic Games, Confederations Cup and Continental Championship final. He captained Brazil side to glory in 1994, but struggled to replicate those leaership qualities as national team manager. During two spells in charge, his first was the more successful, winning the 2007 Copa America and the 2009 Confederations Cup, but he was dismissed after a disappointing quarter-final exit at the 2010 World Cup. He was reappointed in 2014, but a bitterly disappointing performance in the 2016 Copa America meant he lost the job once again. 13 13 DEFENCE: Marcio Santos (Brazil)Santos made the All-Star team for his exceptional defensive capabilities, not for his penalty taking. The Brazilian missed his spot-kick in the shootout against Italy in the final, but luckily for him, Brazil went on to win regardless. FORWARD: Romario (Brazil)This is a front three to be reckoned with. It features the three best players of the tournament. First up, it’s player of the tournament Romario. After a fallout with manager Carlos Alberto Parreira before the tournament, Romario was recalled from a ban to play the final qualifier against Uruguay, which Brazil needed to win or tie to top the group. Before the game, the striker said: “I already know what is going to happen: I’m going to finish Uruguay”. And so he did, scoring both goals in a 2-0 victory in front of the Maracana. He then went and made it Romario’s World Cup, scoring five times on Brazil’s way to glory and winning the Golden Ball. The most-watched World Cup in history, the average attendance per match was 69,000 – a record that stands to this day.Brazil were the victors, claiming their fourth World Cup and their first in 24 years, and viewers were treated to brilliant displays of football by the likes of Romania and Bulgaria. The final is best forgotten, with penalties deciding the match after a bore 0-0 draw in Pasadena.Roberto Baggio missed his spotkick to hand Brazil the World Cup, but the Italy icon still goes down in history as one of the best players at the tournament.Who else starred in the USA in 1994? The World Cup All-Star Team is named to remember the best performers, and you can see who was selected below 1994 FIFA WORLD CUPHosts: United StatesChampions: BrazilRunners-up: ItalyThird place: SwedenFourth place: BulgariaTop scorer: Hristo Stoichkok (Bulgaria) / Oleg Salenko (Russia) – 5 goalsBest Player: Romario (Brazil)Best Young Player: Marc Overmars (Netherlands) DEFENCE: Jorginho (Brazil)Jorginho played every game as the Samba Stars emerged from the 1994 World Cup victorious. The lightening quick, hard-working full back was one of the best of his generation and showed it in the United States. It was his cross which led to Romario’s winning goal against Sweden in the semi-finals. However, he suffered bitter disappointment in the final as he was forced off by injury after just twenty minutes. A young Brazilian named Cafu came on to replace him. 13 13
The eye is like a camera, right? That picture is way too simplistic. The eye-brain visual system does image processing and gleans information from photons in diverse and remarkable ways. Here are some recent findings by scientists:Upward mobility: A team of Harvard scientists found some retinal ganglion cells that sense upward motion. Writing in Nature,1 they began,The retina contains complex circuits of neurons that extract salient information from visual inputs. Signals from photoreceptors are processed by retinal interneurons, integrated by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and sent to the brain by RGC axons. Distinct types of RGC respond to different visual features, such as increases or decreases in light intensity (ON and OFF cells, respectively), colour or moving objects. Thus, RGCs comprise a set of parallel pathways from the eye to the brain…. ….Here we show, by means of a transgenic marking method, that junctional adhesion molecule B (JAM-B) marks a previously unrecognized class of OFF RGCs…. These cells have asymmetric dendritic arbors aligned in a dorsal-to-ventral direction across the retina. Their receptive fields are also asymmetric and respond selectively to stimuli moving in a soma-to-dendrite direction; because the lens reverses the image of the world on the retina, these cells detect upward motion in the visual field. Thus, JAM-B identifies a unique population of RGCs in which structure corresponds remarkably to function.Got your number: The retina can also respond to a quality called “numerosity” – a nonverbal, visual sense of number. David Burr and John Ross, writing in Current Biology,2 summarized this unusual ability of the eye:Evidence exists for a nonverbal capacity for the apprehension of number, in humans (including infants) and in other primates. Here, we show that perceived numerosity is susceptible to adaptation, like primary visual properties of a scene, such as color, contrast, size, and speed. Apparent numerosity was decreased by adaptation to large numbers of dots and increased by adaptation to small numbers, the effect depending entirely on the numerosity of the adaptor, not on contrast, size, orientation, or pixel density, and occurring with very low adaptor contrasts. We suggest that the visual system has the capacity to estimate numerosity and that it is an independent primary visual property, not reducible to others like spatial frequency or density of texture.Go with the flow: Many photographs and videos are taken with the camera fixed on a tripod. What happens to the visual scene in a movie when the camera is mounted on a galloping horse, train engine or race car? It certainly becomes more dynamic and much more difficult to process the information. We saw that dragonflies are masters of optic flow, and that scientists are keen to imitate their special visual organ that processes the information from rapid forward direction (08/13/2004). Frank Bremmer summarized some new findings in Current Biology that says human eyes also have some of this ability.3 This gives us processing powers beyond the simple interpretation of an image coming through a lens.Optic flow is a key signal for heading perception. A new study has shown that the human brain can dissociate between consistent (natural) and inconsistent flow, revealing what is likely a new hierarchy in visual motion processing.He reported on recent “surprising findings” that showed certain areas of the visual cortex, labeled MST, VIP and CSv, appear to be processing stations for optic flow information.Taken together, these new results suggest that area MST may be a preprocessing stage acting like a tuned filter for visual self-motion signals. Areas VIP and CSv, on the other hand, could be seen as downstream processing stages judging the ecological validity of the self-motion signals. This interpretation would indicate a previously unknown hierarchy within the human visual cortical motion system.Color me blue: Brian Wandell, Stanford psychologist, wrote in Current Biology about another stimulating fact: the colors activated by the cones that react to red, green or blue when those colors come through the lens (or are transmitted from video pixels) also “see” the corresponding colors when the neurons themselves are stimulated.4 Commenting on a study of a patient that had electrodes implanted into the visual cortex, he said:Directly stimulating certain cortical neurons can produce a color sensation; a case is reported in which the color perceived by stimulation is the same as the color that most effectively excites the cortical circuitry….These results teach us that even the simplest stimulation is capable of stirring up a perceptually meaningful response from the cortical circuitry. One possibility is that the complex molecular and neural circuitry that serves this portion of the brain is tolerant of a wide range of potential inputs, and that nearly any stimulation of this circuitry evokes a characteristic (resonant) response. The resonant response of these specific circuits is the experience of color. To avoid human chauvinism, let’s look into the eyes of some animals living underwater that can, in certain ways, outperform our own visual tricks. The winner in both cases is among the humblest creatures you would ever suspect to find such abilities: the mantis shrimp.Polar opposites: For the first time, scientists found an animal with the ability to discern circularly polarized light: the mantis shrimp. An international team of scientists reported this in Current Biology5 with some obvious pride at being #1 to discover this feat:We describe the addition of a fourth visual modality in the animal kingdom, the perception of circular polarized light. Animals are sensitive to various characteristics of light, such as intensity, color, and linear polarization. This latter capability can be used for object identification, contrast enhancement, navigation, and communication through polarizing reflections. Circularly polarized reflections from a few animal species have also been known for some time. Although optically interesting, their signal function or use (if any) was obscure because no visual system was known to detect circularly polarized light. Here, in stomatopod crustaceans, we describe for the first time a visual system capable of detecting and analyzing circularly polarized light. Four lines of evidence—behavior, electrophysiology, optical anatomy, and details of signal design—are presented to describe this new visual function. We suggest that this remarkable ability mediates sexual signaling and mate choice, although other potential functions of circular polarization vision, such as enhanced contrast in turbid environments, are also possible. The ability to differentiate the handedness of circularly polarized light, a visual feat never expected in the animal kingdom, is demonstrated behaviorally here for the first time.Super sight: In the latest issue of Creation magazine (March-May, 2008),6 Jonathan Sarfati described one amazing feature of the mantis shrimp, its Guinness-level power punch: it can flick its snapper at 51 mph, generating an acceleration of 10,600 g. But that’s not all. In a sidebar, he talked about another Guinness-level ability: the shrimp’s “super sight.” Would you believe this little crustacean has one of the world’s most complex color vision systems?While humans have three different types of colour receptor (red, green and blue), the shrimp has 12. Four of these can see in the ultraviolet, which we can’t. Furthermore, they can tune their vision with special transparent colour filters to compensate for the way water absorbs different colours differently. None of the above articles mentioned evolution once.1. Kim, Zhang, Yagamata, Meister and Sanes, “Molecular identification of a retinal cell type that responds to upward motion,” Nature 452, 478-482 (27 March 2008) | doi:10.1038/nature06739.2. David Burr and John Ross, “A Visual Sense of Number,” Current Biology, Vol 18, 425-428, 25 March 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.052.3. Frank Benner, “Visual Neuroscience: The Brain’s Interest in Natural Flow,” Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 6, 25 March 2008, Pages R263-R265, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.01.023.4. Brian Wandell, “Colour Vision: Cortical Circuitry for Appearance,” Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 6, 25 March 2008, Pages R250-R251, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.01.045.5. Chou, Kleinlogel, Cronin, Caldwell, Loeffler, Siddiqi, Goldizen and Marshall, “Circular Polarization Vision in a Stomatopod Crustacean,” Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 6, 25 March 2008, Pages 429-434, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.066.6. Jonathan Sarfati, “Shrimpy superboxer,” Creation magazine, Volume 30, Issue 2, Published March 2008, pp. 12-13.Isn’t this terrific? What amazing things are found in nature. The eye gave Darwin cold shudders, but now we know that it is far more complex than he knew. And some of the most remarkable capabilities reside in the humblest of creatures. Shrimp are crustaceans – a subphylum of arthropods, whose members extend all the way back to the Cambrian. This means that the lowest fossil layers containing multicellular animals already display these technologies (10/04/2007). This circuitry and the complex processing software did not emerge by chance. Each of these capabilities are systems involving hardware and software. They require programmed analysis and response to sensory inputs. Eyes are able to extract all kinds of interesting information from light, much more than you would think from the simple diagram in most textbooks of an inverted camera-like image on a retina. The research done to find these abilities was done in intelligently-designed labs by intelligent scientists using reverse-engineering principles. Intelligent design is present de facto from beginning to end. Evolution is blind, they say; well, evolutionary theory is also blind. Take off the blinders and see the creation through created eyes.(Visited 38 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Have you visited Earth, Venus, and Mercury but have yet to venture to Pluto? Don’t worry, Planetary Pursuit explorer, you still have time to earn all 10 souvenirs and become an Official Space Explorer! Through April 15, find different cache types and collect points on the Friend League to earn up to 10 new souvenirs. Ground Control believes in you and your geocaching abilities. Over and out. Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedPlanetary Pursuit launch support (aka FAQ)February 27, 2018In “News”Planetary Pursuit Starthilfe (aka FAQ)February 27, 2018In “Deutsch”It’s not too late to become an Official Space ExplorerMarch 27, 2018In “News”
DefinitionShoulder replacement is surgery to replace the bones of the shoulder joint with artificial joint parts.Alternative NamesTotal shoulder arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement; Partial shoulder replacement; Partial shoulder arthroplasty; Replacement – shoulder; Arthroplasty – shoulderDescriptionYou will receive anesthesia before this surgery. Two types of anesthesia can be used:General anesthesia, which means you will be unconscious and unable to feel pain.Regional anesthesia to numb your arm and shoulder area so that you do not feel any pain in this area. If you receive regional anesthesia, you will also be given medicine to help you relax during the operation.The shoulder is a ball and socket joint. The round end of the arm bone fits into the opening at the end of the shoulder blade, called the socket. This type of joint allows you to move your arm in most directions.For total shoulder replacement, the round end of your arm bone will be replaced with an artificial stem that has a rounded metal head. The socketpart (glenoid) of your shoulder blade will be replaced with a smooth plastic shell (lining) that will be held in place with a special cement. If only 1 of these 2 bones needs to be replaced, the surgery is called a partial shoulder replacement, or a hemiarthroplasty.For shoulder joint replacement, your surgeon will make an incision (cut) over your shoulder joint to open up the area. Then your surgeon will:Remove the head (top) of your upper arm bone (humerus)Cement the new metal head and stem into placeSmooth the surface of the old socket and cement the new one in placeClose your incision with staples or suturesPlace a dressing (bandage) over your woundYour surgeon may place atube in this area todrain fluid that may build up in the joint. The drain will be removed when you no longer need it.advertisementThis surgery usually takes 1 – 3 hours.Why the Procedure Is PerformedShoulder replacement surgery is usually done when you have severe pain in the shoulder area, which limits your ability to move your arm. Causes of shoulder pain include:OsteoarthritisPoor result from a previous shoulder surgeryRheumatoid arthritisBadly broken bone in the arm near the shoulderBadly damaged or torn tissues in the shoulderTumor in or around the shoulderYour doctor may not recommend this surgery if you have: History of infection, which can spread to the replaced joint Severe mental dysfunction Unhealthy skin around the shoulder area Very weak (rotator cuff) muscles around the shoulder that cannot be fixed during surgeryRisksRisksof any anesthesia are:Allergic reactions to medicinesBreathing problemsRiskof anysurgery are:BleedingBlood clotInfectionRisks of shoulder replacement surgery are:Allergic reaction to the artificial jointBlood vessel damage during surgeryBone break during surgeryNerve damage during surgeryDislocation of the artificial jointLoosening of the implant over timeBefore the ProcedureTell your doctor or nurse what medicines you are taking. This includes medicines, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the 2 weeks before your surgery:Two weeks before surgery you may be asked to stop taking medicines that make it harder for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve).Ask your doctor which medicines you should still take on the day of your surgery.If you have diabetes, heart disease, or other medical conditions, your surgeon will ask you to see your doctor who treats you for these conditions.Tell your doctor if you have been drinking a lot of alcohol, more than 1 or 2 drinks a day.If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your doctor or nurse for help. Smoking can slow down wound and bone healing.Let your doctor know right away if you get a cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illness before your surgery.On the day of your surgery:You willlikely be asked not to drink or eat anything for 6- 12 hours before the procedure.Takethe medicinesyour doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital. Be sure to arrive on time.After the ProcedureYou may stay in the hospital for 1- 3 days after your surgery.While there, you may receive physical therapy to help keep the muscles around your shoulder from getting stiff.Before you go home, the physical therapist will teach you how to move your arm around by using your other (good) arm to help.Your arm will need to be in a sling for 2 – 6 weeks with no active movement and 3 months before strengthening. It will be around 4 – 6 months of recovery.Follow any instructions you are given about how to care for your shoulder at home. This includes activities that you should not do.You will be given instructions on shoulder exercises to do at home. Follow these instructions exactly. Doing the exercises in a wrong way can injure your new shoulder.Outlook (Prognosis)advertisementShoulder replacement surgery relieves pain and stiffness for most people. You should be able to resume your normal daily activities without much problem. Many people are able to return to sports such as golf, swimming, gardening, bowling, and others.Your new shoulder joint will last longer if less stress is placed on it. With normal use,a new shoulder joint canlast for at least 10 years.ReferencesAzar FM, Calandruccio JH. Arthroplasty of the shoulder and elbow. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Campbells Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2007:chap 8.Goldberg VM, Kraay MJ. Surgical treatment of joint diseases. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Campbells Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2007:chap 299.Izquierdo R, Voloshin I, Edwards S, et al. Treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2010;18(6):375-82.Review Date:11/15/2012Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.