So you think a cow is a cow is a cow? Think again. South Africa’s indigenous Nguni cattle, long the mainstay of traditional Zulu culture, are possibly the most beautiful cattle in the world, with their variously patterned and multicoloured hides everywhere in demand.Their beauty and the lore and terminology that has become associated with them in Zulu culture is celebrated in a richly illustrated coffee table book called The Abundant Herds, which has fast become a worldwide bestseller.imatshoNgoye – the stones of the Ngoye forestFirst published in November 2003, the book was sold out by the end of the year. The reprint of June 2004 was entirely snapped up by September of that year, and it was printed again in November 2004. The third reprint appeared in December 2005.The Abundant Herds: A Celebration of the Nguni Cattle of the Zulu People is an appreciation of the creative imagination and linguistic versatility of the Zulu people. Written by acclaimed author Marguerite Poland and social anthropologist David Hammond-Tooke, it is an overview of the history of the Nguni cattle and their economic, social, political and spiritual importance to the Zulu people, both past and present.There are two species of cattle in the world: Bos taurus, or European cattle, are the more familiar brown-and-black breeds such as Jersey and Holstein. Bos indicus, on the other hand, are found mainly in India and Africa, and include more unusual creatures such as Zebu, Sanga and Nguni cattle. They are characterised by their enormous horns and magnificent hides.inkampu – of cutting in twoWith beautiful oil and watercolour paintings and sepia drawings by artist Leigh Voigt, The Abundant Herds examines the role played by cattle and cattle-related imagery in the oral tradition of the Zulu people – how cattle terminology can form part of the worldview associated with Zulu culture.For hundreds of years, the well-being of the herds and the Zulu people have been so closely connected that cattle have become a part of the people’s spiritual and aesthetic lives.inkomo eyezindlu – the beast which is housesThe poetry of namingThis has given rise to a poetic and complex naming practice. The Abundant Herds explains that the fine and subtle nuance of the isiZulu language captures the delicate interrelationship between cattle terminology and the natural world, where the colour and pattern of a hide or the shape of a pair of horns is linked to images in nature.In a chapter called The Poetry of Naming, Poland discusses this colour-pattern terminology, its origins and its metaphorical associations with natural phenomena such as birds, animals and plants. Animals with specific colours and patterns on their hides are given unique Zulu names, which translate as follows:The eggs of the lark – a creamy coat spotted with fine rust speckles.The gaps between the branches of the trees silhouetted against the sky – a deeply dappled animal.The hornbill takes to flight – a dark beast which shows a flash of white beneath its flank when its walks.What stabs the rain – the upright points of a young steer’s horns.While these terms form the core of a fascinating system of classification, cattle imagery also abounds in Zulu oral history and poetry; in tales, proverbs, riddles and the praises of individual beasts, celebrated by their owners for their fertility, their vigour and their character and which subtly reflect the changing fortunes and social concerns of the Zulu people.engabantubegulile – like old peopleAlthough cattle terms continue to be used today among peasant farmers in rural communities throughout Africa, for the younger, urban generation this knowledge is fading. Despite the resurgence of interest in the economic importance of Sanga-Nguni cattle in South Africa today, there is a real danger that a precious branch of indigenous knowledge will disappear.The aim of this work is not only to record something of this heritage for posterity but also to celebrate the richness of Zulu linguistic versatility and the creative imagination of the Zulu people. imaqandakahuye – the eggs of the larkThe authorsDr Marguerite Poland is a distinguished writer, having published 10 children’s books before turning to adult fiction. She has received the Percy Fitzpatrick Award and the Sankei Honourable Award for Children’s Books for the Japanese translation of The Mantis and the Moon. In May 2005, at the Literary awards, she was presented with a Lifetime Achievers Award in English by Arts and Culture Minister Pallo Jordan. The Abundant Herds is based on research for her doctoral thesis at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, awarded in 1997.The late Professor David Hammond-Tooke was Professor Emeritus of Social Anthropology at Wits University. He conducted extensive research among South African groups, especially the South Nguni and North Sotho, and his theoretical interests included kinship, local government, religion, folklore, indigenous symbolic systems, historiography and comparative ethnography.inala – abundanceLeigh Voigt is an internationally acclaimed artist, known particularly for her paintings of birds and wildlife. She has illustrated eight books and has exhibited in South Africa, Europe, Great Britain, Canada and the US, where her work is represented in numerous private and public collections. Lulu Phezulu: Leigh Voigt’s African Album, her autobiographical account of life in the bushveld, which she both wrote and illustrated, won the prestigious BookData Booksellers’ Award in 2000.The Abundant Herds: A Celebration of the Nguni Cattle of the Zulu People (ISBN 1 874950 69 5) is published by Fernwood Press.SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
A proposed point system for rating the sustainability of landscape plansNEW YORK, NY — Efforts are underway to create a system to rate the sustainability of gardens and landscaping plans. Three organizations — the American Society of Landscape Architects, the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, and the United States Botanic Garden — have joined forces to create voluntary national guidelines and performance benchmarks for sustainable landscape designs.Dubbed the Sustainable Sites Initiative, the project has produced a 179-page report with a draft of the proposed guidelines. According to the New York Times, the report “includes a point system for rating a landscape, much like the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, which rates the sustainability of buildings.” The draft proposal “goes into detail, specifying the kinds of plants, for example, that can be used to cleanse a disturbed wetland; how trees can be used to shade a building, protect it from wind, prevent erosion and clean the air; and what kind of plantings enhance mental health, draw people outside the building and even engage them in tending the landscape.”Ray Mims, the United States Botanic Garden’s conservation horticulturist, is one of the experts leading the Sustainable Sites Initiative. “We want to make sure that you look at the soil, the vegetation, the hydrology, so that you are improving — or certainly not harming — the natural ecosystem,” Mims told the New York Times. “We’re hoping that it will be incorporated into LEED in 2011.”To learn more, visit the Sustainable Sites Initiative Web site at http://sustainablesites.org.
A special court in New Delhi on Monday granted bail to Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) chief Lalu Prasad’s daughter Misa Bharti and her husband iShailesh Kumar in a money laundering case.Special Judge Arvind Kumar granted the relief to Ms. Bharti and Mr. Kumar, who appeared before the court in pursuance to summons issued against them, on a personal bond of ₹2 lakh with a surety of a like amount each. The judge directed them not to leave the country without the court’s prior permission. The two had moved bail applications.During the hearing, the Enforcement Directorate (ED) opposed their bail plea, saying they indulged in a “very serious” economic offence. “Persons on such a post are committing such kind of activities which are totally against the nation,” ED counsel Atul Tripathi said.The court asked if the probe agency had arrested the couple during the case investigation, to which the ED replied in the negative. This prompted the court to ask the ED, “Why do you now want the court to take them in custody?”On February 8, the court issued summons against Ms. Bharti, her husband and Mishail Packers and Printers Pvt. Ltd. as accused in the case after taking cognizance of the ED charge sheet.On December 23 last, the ED filed its final report against Ms. Bharti and Mr. Kumar. Earlier, it had attached a Delhi farmhouse of the couple in connection with the probe.The farmhouse, located at 26, Palam Farms in south Delhi’s Bijwasan area, was attached provisionally under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). It was “held in the name of M/s Mishail Packers and Printers Private Limited”, the ED had said. “It was purchased in 2008-09, using ₹1.2 crore involved in money laundering,” it had alleged. It raided the farmhouse and a few other locations in July last as a part of its probe against two brothers — Surendra Kumar Jain and Virendra Jain — and others, who were alleged to have laundered several crores of rupees using shell companies.The Jain brothers, currently on bail, were arrested by the ED under the PMLA.Chartered accountant arrestedThe ED had also arrested Rajesh Agrawal, a chartered accountant who allegedly mediated and provided a cash amount of “₹90 lakh to the Jain brothers in advance so as to invest in M/s Mishail Packers and Printers Pvt. Ltd. as share premium.”Ms. Bharti and her husband are alleged to have been directors of Mishail Printers and Packers Pvt. Ltd. in the past, according to the ED. “The company, M/s Mishail Packers and Printers, was registered at 25, Tughlak Road, New Delhi till the shares were bought by Ms. Bharti. It was only during 2009-10 that the address was changed to Farm no. 26, Palam Farms, VPO Bijwasan, New Delhi. Bharti and Kumar were the directors of the company during the relevant period,” the ED had said.The ED had alleged that the Jain brothers, Mr. Agrawal, Ms. Bharti and Mr. Kumar were the “key persons behind the laundering of Rs 1.2 crore.”
In a fresh salvo at the Trinamool Congress government in West Bengal, Governor Jagdeep Dhankhar has said there is a “policy paralysis” in the State’s higher education system, and that he is not consulted in the affairs of universities despite being the chancellor.Mr. Dhankhar also said that a “black hole” exists in the West Bengal’s higher education Ministry in terms of communication with him. The Governor said he was “pained” at not being consulted over the recent appointment of the vice-chancellor of Sanskrit College and University in the city.“In the ministry of higher education, there is a black hole in terms of communication with the chancellor. There is a policy paralysis and I am worried about it. I am doing everything under the sun to see that the education scenario in the universities improves,” Mr. Dhankhar told PTI in an interview.Mr. Dhankhar has been at loggerheads with the State government on a number of issues since assuming charge in July.
View comments The Stars can wrap up the series at San Andres Sports Complex on Tuesday. Game 2 of the Bataan-Caloocan series is also slated on Tuesday. —CEDELF P. TUPASSports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Hong Kong tunnel reopens, campus siege nears end MOST READ Top seed Bataan sustained its fiery form by whipping Caloocan, 91-71, on Tuesday night to move within a victory of reaching the second round of the MPBL Datu Cup playoffs at Bataan People’s Center in Balanga City.Unrelenting after a strong start, the Risers used a balanced offensive to overwhelm the Supremos, who came into the game riding high on a three-game winning streak.ADVERTISEMENT Byron Villarias, the former NLEX reserve, fired 18 points to lead five other players in twin digits for coach Jojo Lastimosa’s team, which has lost only twice so far this season.Earlier, Manila also closed in on a second-round berth—and a possible duel with Bataan—after a narrow 69-65 triumph over the Bulacan Kuyas in Game 1 of their own best-of-three series.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesDragged into a defensive battle, the Stars flexed their muscles, holding the Kuyas’ top guns Jerick Canada and James Martinez scoreless.“Our shots weren’t falling so we really had to rely on our defense,” said Manila coach Philip Cezar in Filipino. Trump campaign, GOP groups attack Google’s new ad policy Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte 4 athletes to carry PH flag? P2.5 B shabu seized in Makati sting, Chinese national nabbed LATEST STORIES Urgent reply from Philippine football chief 1 dead, 3 injured in Quezon road crash Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Lacson backs proposal to elect president and vice president in tandem
Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting “He did a great job of bouncing back,” Leonard said. “He’s a pro. That’s what pros do, they know it’s just one game and they come in the next game ready to play.”Lowry, who missed all seven attempts in Game 1, shot 8 for 13 and led his team with seven assists.“He was big time tonight,” Nurse said. “That’s him at his finest.”Siakam said Lowry was visibly more tuned in Tuesday than he was Saturday.“From the jump he had that fire in his eyes,” Siakam said. “That’s the Kyle we know.”ADVERTISEMENT Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess View comments Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid Leonard scored 12 points in the opening quarter as the Raptors led 26-18 after one.“Their defense set the tone for the game in the first quarter,” Clifford said.Lowry scored 11 points in the second and Siakam added six, putting Toronto up 51-39 at halftime. Orlando shot 13 for 40 in the opening two quarters.Leonard connected of seven of nine attempts in the third, scoring 17 points. The Raptors outscored the Magic 39-27 to take a 90-66 lead into the fourth.“At halftime, I thought we had settled down,” Clifford said. “Then, at the beginning of the third quarter, they were good and, frankly, we were awful.”TIP-INSMagic: Orlando missed its first five free throw attempts before Ross made two of three at 2:11 of the first. The Magic shot 8 for 16 at the line in the first half and finished 13 for 24. … Ross had 15 of Orlando’s 17 bench points in the first half. … The Magic were outscored 52-36 in the paint. … Orlando has outrebounded Toronto in all six meetings this season.Raptors: Lowry snapped his scoring slump by splitting a pair of free throws at 10:48 of the first, leading to thunderous applause. He was cheered again after hitting a 3 at 6:52. … Only four players scored in the first half. Leonard had 17, Lowry 15, Siakam 12 and Serge Ibaka 7. … Toronto has won nine straight playoff games in which it makes more 3-pointers than its opponent. Toronto shot 11 for 35 Tuesday, while Orlando was 9 for 34. … G Patrick McCaw (sprained right thumb) was not available despite practicing the previous two days. … Toronto is 8-8 all time in Game 2s.TURNED OVEROrlando had just 11 turnovers in Game 1 but gave the ball away 17 times in Game 2, including on both of its opening two possessions. MOST READ LATEST STORIES “If we’re going to make this a long series, and hopefully we will, we’re going to need to be stronger with the ball,” Gordon said. “Simple as that.”HOME SWEET HOMEOrlando has won nine straight at home and is unbeaten on its own court since a Feb. 22 loss to Chicago.“We feed off the crowd, we like their energy,” Gordon said.UP NEXTGame 3 is Friday night in Orlando.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next PH teams Pasig, Balanga hope to pull off surprises in FIBA 3×3 World Tour Masters Toronto Raptors guard Kyle Lowry, right, falls after being fouled by Orlando Magic guard Michael Carter-Williams (7) during the first half of Game 2 of an NBA basketball first-round playoff series Tuesday, April 16, 2019, in Toronto. (Frank Gunn/The Canadian Press via AP)TORONTO — Kept off the scoreboard in a Game 1 defeat, Toronto Raptors guard Kyle Lowry was “at his finest” in Game 2, at least in the eyes of coach Nick Nurse.Fellow All-Star Kawhi Leonard wasn’t too bad, either.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue Leonard scored 37 points, Lowry bounced back with 22 and the Raptors routed the Orlando Magic 111-82 on Tuesday night, evening their Eastern Conference first-round series at one win apiece.Pascal Siakam had 19 points and 10 rebounds for the Raptors, who never trailed and led by as many as 34.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsGame 3 is Friday night in Orlando.Leonard said Lowry “led us in intensity,” helping the East’s No. 2 seed avoid a 2-0 hole. PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles Despite playing in foul trouble for much of the night, Leonard finished with a career playoff-high 15 field goals. He made his first nine attempts from inside the arc before missing a layup.Leonard shot 15 for 22 before leaving to a standing ovation with 4:46 remaining and Toronto ahead 104-73.“Leonard was great,” Magic coach Steve Clifford said. “What are you going to do? He was great.”Leonard’s career playoff high is 43, set with San Antonio against Memphis on April 22, 2017. He made 14 baskets in that game.“Tonight he was just in a groove, getting downhill, getting to his spots,” Lowry said. “He’s a player who knows where he wants to be on the floor and when he gets to those spots, he’s pretty tough to guard.”Aaron Gordon scored 20 points, Terrence Ross had 15 and Evan Fournier 10 for the Magic, who won the opener 104-101 on a tiebreaking 3 by D.J. Augustin with 4.2 seconds to go.Nikola Vucevic, who shot 3 for 14 in Game 1, struggled again in Game 2, going 3 of 7 and scoring six points.“They did a good job taking away a lot of my strengths,” Vucevic said. “I’ve just got to figure out a way to be more aggressive, be more efficient offensively.”Augustin, who had 25 points Saturday, shot 1 for 6. Seven of his nine points came at the free throw line.Orlando didn’t score for almost five minutes to start the game, missing its first six shots and four straight free throws. The drought ended when Gordon rebounded and scored on Vucevic’s miss from the line at 7:14 of the first, answering an 11-0 Toronto run. DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew
Former NBA player and NBA Cares Ambassador Felipe Lopez recently traveled with the United Nations Foundation’s Nothing But Nets campaign to Dajabon, Dominican Republic to help fight malaria.There, he met with officials from the National Center for Tropical Diseases Control within the country’s Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance to learn about the progress made toward malaria elimination on the island of Hispaniola. He also met with community health workers, civil society organizations, children and families affected by malaria.Lopez, a native of Santiago, also visited the Dominican Republic to see the efforts of his private foundation, the Felipe Lopez Foundation, that provides opportunities for at-risk youth.“I’m happy to see that my home country is on the brink of eliminating this deadly disease,” said Lopez. “I hope my fans will join Nothing But Nets and its partners on the winning team to beat malaria once and for all.”By 2016, the Dominican Republic had only 755 malaria cases, down from almost 3,000 in 2010. This progress was made possible due to the scale-up of community health workers supported by U.S. Government agencies, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. This strategy allowed access to remote areas and mobile populations, making it possible to achieve universal access to malaria diagnosis and treatment, as well as to implement an excellent community-based surveillance system.Nothing But Nets is the world’s largest grassroots campaign working to protect vulnerable families from malaria, a disease that kills a child every two minutes. Malaria is preventable and treatable – and in the Dominican Republic, it is on the path to being eliminated by 2020. Since 2016, Nothing But Nets has partnered with the Malaria Zero Alliance to mobilize additional resources and momentum to ending the disease in Hispaniola.“The Dominican Republic and Haiti represent the only island in the Caribbean where malaria is still endemic. Elimination in Hispaniola is an important milestone toward a malaria-free Americas,” said Margaret Reilly McDonnell, Director of Nothing But Nets. “We are thrilled to have Felipe Lopez join the cause to help us inspire the momentum needed to ensure no child dies from a mosquito bite.”NBA Cares is a founding partner of Nothing But Nets, inspiring countless basketball fans to join the fight against malaria. Two-time NBA MVP Stephen Curry, along with several other professional and Olympic athletes, have joined the cause to help end malaria for good.Since 2006, Nothing But Nets has raised more than $60 million from hundreds of thousands of grassroots supporters, and in cooperation with the United Nations and partners, delivered more than 10 million bed nets and other malaria prevention and treatment to families in 31 countries around the world. Anyone — from students to superstars to CEOs — can help protect families from malaria. To help Felipe Lopez save lives, click here.
Kolkata: The presence of the quick response teams (QRTs) was allegedly not felt properly in the sixth phase of elections on Sunday, when eight Lok Sabha constituencies of Bengal went to polls.In previous phases, the QRTs had moved quickly to the areas where incidents of clashes were reported. But in the sixth phase, QRTs were not as quick in their movement. Various political party leaders alleged that the QRTs failed to turn up on time when there were incidents of violence in any of the eight constituencies. In previous phases of elections, the QRTs were led by state police officers as they were well acquainted with the locations of the polling booths. Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaAfter some allegations surfaced against the state police force, the Election Commission tried to adopt a separate method to conduct the elections in a free and fair manner. Special Police Observer Vivek Dubey had decided to deploy Central Force officials to lead the QRTs, keeping the state police at bay. The QRTs had faced difficulties in identifying the polling booths where the clashes were reported from, as the Central Force commandants who were supposed to give them directions had no idea about the geographical locations of the polling booths. Most of the Central Force commandants were from other states. Also Read – Bengal civic volunteer dies in road mishap on national highwayAs a result of this, clashes broke out outside various polling booths and the trouble could not be quelled in time. Keeping in mind the geographical locations of the districts which were once infested with Maoists, the Election Commission decided to deploy two QRTs in each police station area. Each team comprised eight jawans. There were around 547 QRTs in the sixth phase of elections and 108 additional QRTs which were led by ad hoc commandants. According to sources in the office of the Chief Electoral Officer (CEO), the election officials in the state were not convinced with the idea of deploying Central Force commandants as the head of each QRT. The Election Commission has already submitted a report to the Election Commission of India in Delhi in this regard.
While death could be a pain-free event, people are most worried about loved ones being in pain or frightened in the final hours or minutes of life, says a poll that suggests most people know nothing about dying. One third of the public opted not to answer questions about end of life, suggesting that topic remains taboo for some, said the survey. About 60 per cent of the people feel they know little or nothing about the final hours of life, showed the survey of around 1,000 British adults. “It is striking that six in 10 people feel they know very little or nothing about what happens to a person at the end of life, despite half of people having been with someone when they died,” said Robert Lechler, President of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Britain. “Not knowing what may happen to a loved one as they die can exacerbate fears at the hardest times of our life. It may also mean that people struggle to think clearly about how best to fulfil the wishes of a dying family member or friend, let alone know what to ask doctors and nurses,” Lechler said. One third of the public opted not to answer questions about end of life, suggesting that the topic remains taboo for some, said the survey released recently. The poll also revealed that those who know at least a little about what happens at the end of life are as likely to get their information about what happens at the end of life from documentaries as they are from medical professionals. Interestingly, information from films, dramas and soaps (16 per cent) also falls in the top five sources of information.
One of the most interesting statistical nuggets I ran into while researching a piece about NHL goalies was the improvement in leaguewide goaltending over the past 30 years. It hasn’t just been a small improvement — the league’s save-percentage leaders during the 1980s and early 1990s put up statistics that would rate below-average in recent seasons.Here’s the league’s average save percentage since the 1983-84 season, when the NHL began tracking shots against:Save percentage rapidly increased during the so-called dead-puck era of the 1990s and early 2000s. It’s no coincidence that over that period, the NHL’s rate of scoring also dropped sharply. A lot of fans blame strategies such as the neutral-zone trap and left-wing lock for triggering the dead-puck era, but more of the blame belongs to better goalies.As for why goalies are so much better now, well, that’s a subject of much debate in hockey circles. One of the most popular explanations is that the sheer size of goaltending equipment has exploded since the 1980s. That’s hard to argue when you look at how pads have grown over time. But since pad size first became a talking point in the mid-to-late 1990s, the league has gone to some lengths (no pun intended) to police the dimensions of puck-stopping technology — and it’s had scarcely any effect on save percentages.Instead, I think a bigger reason save percentages improved so sharply in the 1990s was a dramatic change in the goaltending techniques being employed.During the 1980s, the prevailing style was still the so-called stand-up method, in which a goalie largely remains upright on his skates while making saves, using his stick and skates to stop low shots. In the middle of the decade, though, goaltending phenom Patrick Roy made his NHL debut. Emboldened by recent advances in arm and chest protectors, Roy used a different technique — the “butterfly” — wherein the goaltender drops to his knees to make saves, effectively sealing off most shooting targets along the bottom third of the net.Using the butterfly, Roy was sensational — he backstopped the Montreal Canadiens to the Stanley Cup as a 20-year-old in 1986 — and it wasn’t long before the butterfly style spread throughout the league. The effect was profound. Stand-up goalies who were the mainstays of the mid-1980s were almost completely phased out of the game within a decade, replaced by a younger generation who used the butterfly or at least a hybrid technique featuring butterfly elements.In retrospect, this seems like an obvious tactic — it’s a goaltending truism that the majority of goals are scored on shots at or near ice level — but older equipment made dropping low a dangerous proposition. Once falling to the ice became safer, goalies no longer had to rely purely on reflexes, instead being able to stop a greater percentage of low shots on technique alone. It’s no surprise that save percentages skyrocketed when one of the most common subsets of shots suddenly became much tougher.One final note: Watch the Wayne Gretzky highlight reel below and pay particular attention to the goalies in the early portion of the video, when the Great One was with the Edmonton Oilers.Compared with today’s game, you can really see the difference in goaltending technique (notice how many of the goalies tried to stop Gretzky’s shots without dropping to the ice). Modern goalies are more athletic and mobile, and, yes, their pads are plainly bigger. But they’re also using a style much more grounded in the probabilities of where pucks are shot.