Yanghee LeeThe UN independent investigator on human rights in Myanmar sees growing evidence to suspect genocide has been committed and wants prosecutions for crimes committed against entire ethnic and religious groups, she said in a report published on Friday.Yanghee Lee, in a report submitted to the United Nations Human Rights Council, said she was “increasingly of the opinion that the events bear the hallmarks of genocide and therefore calls in the strongest terms for accountability.””The government leadership who did nothing to intervene, stop, or condemn these acts must also be held accountable.”
Mustafa Morshed Akash,Tanjila Haq Chowdhury MituTanjila Haq Chowdhury Mitu, who was detained in connection with reported suicide of her husband physician Mustafa Morshed Akash, has confessed to having extramarital affairs with others, police claimed on Friday, reports UNB.She, however, kept mum about various other important issues, Chittagong Metropolitan Police’s additional deputy commissioner (South) Md Mizanur Rahman said at a press briefing in the city.”She was detained over her husband’s Facebook status before killing himself and his family’s verbal complaint,” Mizanur said.A team of Counter Terrorism and Transnational Crime (CTTC) unit picked Mitu up from Nandankanon on Thursday night, hours after her husband reportedly killed himself with an insulin overdose.A Chattogram court later sent her to jail when police produced her before it showing her arrest in a case filed over the incident.Victim’s mother Jobeda Khanam filed the case against six people, including Mitu, her parents and two friends, with Chandgaon police station in the afternoon, said its officer-in-charge Abul Bashar.The five other accused are Mitu’s father Anisul Haq Chowdhury, mother Shamim Shely, sister Sanjida Haq Chowdhury Alisha and two friends – Indian national Uttam Patel and Mahbubul Alam.Police said they will investigate whether any of Mitu’s friends was involved in the instigation.CTTC unit chief Mohammad Shahidullah said they had interrogated Mitu. “She has admitted to cheating and conjugal disputes but avoided answering some other questions,” he said.Police said they had seized the mobile phone used by Akash and the physician’s Facebook status about his wife has been deleted.Akash, 33, a physician of Chittagong Medical College Hospital’s medicine department, reportedly killed himself over family feud in Chandgaon residential area in the city after an altercation with his wife, also a physician who used to reside in the USA, about her alleged illicit affairs.Family members said before his apparent suicide, Akash had shared photos of his wife on his Facebook profile and wrote about her alleged extramarital affairs before announcing his decision to end his life.
By The Associated PressThousands of people on May 9 attended the funeral of Mozambican rebel and opposition leader Afonso Dhlakama, with the country’s president and Dhlakama’s successor pledging to forge ahead with peace talks.Dhlakama died at age 65 last week in his rural hideout in central Mozambique, where he had run a renewed military campaign against the southern African nation’s government after pulling out of a 1992 peace accord that ended 16 years of civil war that killed up to 1 million people.Family members of Mozambique’s opposition leader, Alfonso Dhlakama react during his state funeral in Beira about 700 kilometres south of the capital Maputo. Dhlakama, who led a rebel group during the devastating civil war that ended in 1992 died on May 3. He was 65. (AP Photo/Tsvangirayi Mukwazhi)His death came not long after he had renewed negotiations with the government.President Filipe Nyusi said those talks should continue.“I want to make it clear that I will carry on with the work that we began, the peace and strengthening of our democracy,” Nyusi said at the funeral in the port city of Beira.Dhlakama, who turned the Mozambique National Resistance, or Renamo, from a rebel group into a competitive political party after the 1992 peace deal, had demanded the decentralization of power as a condition to lay down arms. His group, which never fully disarmed, was repeatedly defeated in elections and alleged fraud.Renamo’s interim leader, Ossufo Momade, repeated the demand for more autonomy on Wednesday but committed the movement to negotiations, saying discussions also should focus on integrating Renamo’s fighters into the national army.Nyusi said he accepted the need to finalize the two demands.“I confirm my availability for the process,” the president said, adding that the fighters should disarm and join the national army.In March, Nyusi proposed constitutional changes to redistribute power to the provinces as part of peace efforts.Renamo’s interim leader also alleged that Dhlakama had died in the bush because of the military’s attempts on his life. The Portuguese news agency Lusa has reported that Dhlakama was ill prior to his death, citing an unnamed Renamo official. Nyusi has said he had hoped to help transfer Dhlakama out of the impoverished country for medical treatment, but it was too lateDhlakama’s supporters, some wearing T-shirts with his picture, lined up on Wednesday to view the body of a man loved by some and hated by others for his role in the civil war. Dozens of people climbed trees, while others followed the proceedings from the balconies of nearby apartments.The coffin was draped in the national flag while uniformed soldiers – once the main targets of rebel attacks – stood guard.Speakers described Dhlakama as a visionary, a democrat and a negotiator.“He was a man of the people. He died fighting for the freedom of the people,” Sarah Zhuwawo, who said she was a relative, told The Associated Press.Others were less charitable.“He was a bandit. He was a dangerous man, that one. He wanted this country to collapse,” said Lucas Chikweya, who was selling boiled eggs on the street.In the city of Mutare in neighboring Zimbabwe, some criticized Dhlakama for sending his fighters across the border to attack innocent villagers in the 1980s.Hordes of Mozambicans fled into Zimbabwe and neighboring Malawi as refugees during the fighting.Between 2013 and 2016, Renamo resumed low-intensity sporadic attacks on Mozambican police, the military and civilians after Dhlakama left his Beira residence for rural Gorongosa, citing renewed attacks on him by the government.However, tensions eased in 2017 as Dhlakama met Nyusi in Gorongosa to discuss differences between the two sides.“What matters most is that he was working toward peace at the end. It is important that negotiations are completed before next year’s elections,” said Zimbabwean opposition politician Chris Sibindi, who attended the funeral. Mozambique is set to hold presidential, legislative and provincial elections in October 2019.Dhlakama will be buried Thursday in his home village.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as graphene, have several potential uses as its π-conjugated structure lends itself to high stability and conductivity. Researchers are interested in exploring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with boron and nitrogen atoms in an effort to explore the functionality and potential uses for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal information: Nature Chemistry Amino acids formed from the single-electron activation of carbon dioxide One polyatomic six-member ring that has not been isolated and studied is 1,3-dioxa-5-aza-2,4,6-triborinane, or DATB. DATB has a core B3NO2 ring that evidences some aromatic character. Hidetoshi Noda, Makoto Furutachi, Yasuko Asada, Masakatsu Shibasaki and Naoya Kumagai of the Institute of Microbial Chemistry in Tokyo (Bikaken) isolated and analyzed DATB using an m-terphenyl template. They demonstrated its ability to catalyze the direct coupling of several carboxylic acids with a variety of amines. Their DATB catalyst is thermally stable, structurally planar, and does not undergo hydrolysis. Their work appears in Nature Chemistry.The m-terphenyl template came out of the necessity to combine the B-N-B fragment to the O-B-O fragment to make the 1,2-dioxa-5-aza-2,4,6-triborinane ring. Using a stepwise synthesis, the first compound they made had the m-terphenyl template attached to the B-N-B portion of the DATB and a phenyl group attached to the boron of the O-B-O portion. The other compound that resulted from their initial syntheses had another m-terphenyl attached to the boron in the O-B-O portion of DATB instead of phenyl.The presence of DATB was confirmed with multinuclear NMR, mass spectrometry, and single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Notably, the DATB portion is planar and it exhibited offset face-to-face pi stacking. Additionally, it displayed slight aromaticity based on bond length and showed resistance toward hydrolytic cleavage.The next step was to determine if the DATB derivatives were able to catalyze amide bond formation. Boron has an affinity for amines, making this compound a possible option for catalyzing the direct coupling of amines and carboxylic acids. Noda et al. tested a variety of carboxylic acids because one of the major setbacks with amine and carboxylic acid coupling is that current methods are not generalizable for a variety of carboxylic acids, particularly bulky carboxylic acids. They tested a range of acids and amines whose coupling reactions were successfully catalyzed using DATB. They found that their DATB derivative successfully catalyzed the amide bond formation for sterically bulky aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids. They also found that indole-containing substrates did not require a protecting group. And, their method worked with benzoic acid and primary amines, α-branched amines, cyclic secondary amines. Using higher temperatures, they successfully coupled α-tertiary amines and acyclic secondary amines to benzoic acid. Additionally, they showed that the stereochemistry of α-chiral carboxylic acids and α-chiral amines were maintained.Their DATB derivative also worked well in the presence of various functional groups showing that the catalyst displayed good selectivity. Additionally, Noda et al. tested the catalyst’s ability to make peptide bonds with amino acids and biologically relevant amines by coupling Bz-Val-OH with H-Leu-NH2.This catalyst is remarkably versatile compared to other catalysts used for amine-carboxylic acid coupling. The authors contend that this is due to the distinct mechanism in which the three Lewis acid sites on the DATB core are used to bind the carboxylic acid and the amine countering the entropy cost in forming the bond. Chemical space for six-membered heterocycles composed of B, C, N and O atoms and the structure of DATBs. Credit: (c) Nature Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2708 Citation: B3NO2 ring system serves as a versatile catalyst for amide bond formation (2017, February 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-b3no2-versatile-catalyst-amide-bond.html More information: Hidetoshi Noda et al. Unique physicochemical and catalytic properties dictated by the B3NO2 ring system, Nature Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2708AbstractThe expansion of molecular diversity beyond what nature can produce is a fundamental objective in chemical sciences. Despite the rich chemistry of boron-containing heterocycles, the 1,3-dioxa-5-aza-2,4,6-triborinane (DATB) ring system, which is characterized by a six-membered B3NO2 core, remains elusive. Here, we report the synthesis of m-terphenyl-templated DATB derivatives, displaying high stability and peculiar Lewis acidity arising from the three suitably arranged boron atoms. We identify a particular utility for DATB in the dehydrative amidation of carboxylic acids and amines, a reaction of high academic and industrial importance. The three boron sites are proposed to engage in substrate assembly, lowering the entropic cost of the transition state, in contrast with the operative mechanism of previously reported catalysts and amide coupling reagents. The distinct mechanistic pathway dictated by the DATB core will advance not only such amidations, but also other reactions driven by multisite activation. Explore further © 2017 Phys.org